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National Historic Landmarks 




National Historic Landmarks 



UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA 

OCT 2 7.1976 

LIBRARIES 
DEPOSITORY 



National Historic Landmarks 

A Preservation Program 

of the 
National Park Service 



Historic Sites Survey 

Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation 

National Park Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 

Washington, D.C. 

1976 



Cover: San Xavier Del Bac, Spanish mission in Arizona, 
designated as a National Historic Landmark on 
October 9, 1960. 

Frontispiece: "Old Ironsides," the U.S. frigate Constitution 
at the Boston Naval Shipyard. U.S. Navy. 
T.A.Jeffries 



National Historic Landmarks 

A Preservation Program 

of the 

National Park Service 



Americans have long treasured their cultural herit- 
age. Among the most carefully authenticated treas- 
ures of that heritage are the national historic land- 
marks designated by the Secretary of the Interior 
for exceptional significance in the Nation's history. 
These treasures include such diverse places as the 
United States Capitol Building; ruts on the Oregon 
Trail— silent reminders of the trek of westward 
pioneers; Fair Lane, the home of Henry Ford, who 
launched America into the mass production indus- 
trial age; the quiet rural valley of Green Springs, 
Virginia. 

The National Historic Landmarks Program 
takes its roots from the Historic Sites Act of 1935 
which authorized the Secretary of the Interior to 
"make a survey of historic and archeological sites, 
buildings, and objects for the purpose of determin- 
ing which possess exceptional value as commemo- 
rating or illustrating the history of the United 
States;" and to "Erect and maintain tablets to 
mark or commemorate historic or prehistoric 
places and events of national historical or archeo- 
logical significance." Initially, sites were surveyed 
to locate places which might be considered for in- 
clusion in the National Park System. This remains 
a responsibility of the National Survey of Historic 
Sites and Buildings. In 1960, however, there was 
a realization that a vast majority of our total 
cultural heritage, comprised of the man-made and 
natural environment, would for numerous reasons, 
never be included in the national park system. 
To identify such places of national significance, to 
mark them and to encourage private initiative in 
their preservation, the designation of national 
historic landmark was developed. This honorary 



program has received nationwide support for its 
catalytic role in stimulating preservation, com- 
munity cooperation, and in giving national recogni- 
tion to significant parts of the Nation's heritage. 

National historic landmarks are visible remind- 
ers of the events, persons, places, and objects 
which have affected broad patterns of American 
history, illustrated man's craftsmanship and 
artistry, and reflected America's evolving culture. 
They contain historic and prehistoric villages of 
the American Indian, sites of battlefield conflict, 
homes of political leaders, soldiers, scientists, 
artists, and humanitarians. Leaders of business, 
labor, and education are also represented. The 
works of master architects and buildings which 
reflect outstanding examples of a particular period 
or style of architecture may be found. The diver- 
sity of landmarks reflects the whole of the 
American experience. 

In recent years, districts, which possess a com- 
posite quality and evoke a special feeling and 
association, have been chosen as national historic 
landmarks. Such districts may contain individual 
buildings which, of themselves, may be of less than 
national significance, but. as an assemblage, repre- 
senting a special character of an urban or a rural 
environment, possess national significance. 

To attain the designation of national historic 
landmark, a property must be studied by National 
Park Service historians, architects, or archeologists, 
usually as a part of a major theme in American 
history such as Social and Humanitarian Move- 
ments or Agriculture. The property should meet 
three general criteria: significance in a given field; 
association with individuals and events; and integ- 
rity, the latter meaning that original and intangible 
elements which contribute to national signifi- 
cance must remain intact. Potential landmarks are 
brought, semi-annually, before two advisory boards 
of scholars and national leaders— the Consulting 
Committee for the National Survey of Historic 
Sites and Buildings, and the Advisory Board on 
National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monu- 
ments. These boards review the presentations of 
National Park Service professionals. Those proper- 
ties which meet the approval of the Secretary's Ad- 
visory Board are recommended for landmark status. 



The actual designation is effected when the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, acting upon the counsel of his 
Advisory Board, approves landmark designation. 
The National Historic Landmarks Program is the 
only honorary preservation program of its kind in 
the Nation. 

In administering the program, the National Park 
Service cooperates with educational institutions 
throughout the land, State and municipal govern- 
ments, organizations such as the National Trust for 
Historic Preservation, and private individuals. 

After landmark designation, the owner of a 
property may voluntarily agree to preserve the 
integrity of the landmark. Landmark owners are en- 
titled to receive, free of charge, a certificate signed 
by the Director of the National Park Service and 
the Secretary of the Interior and a bronze marker 
which can be displayed on the property. Such parti- 
cipation is voluntary and does not affect landmark 
status which becomes official upon designation by 
the Secretary. Of 1,349 national historic landmarks, 
well over half the owners have chosen to display 
their plaques and to make a commitment to pre- 
serve their properties. In itself, landmark designa- 
tion does not legally bind the owner with respect to 
the use of the property. However, should the owner 
significantly change or destroy the values for which 
a property was recognized as being nationally signi- 
ficant, the Secretary of the Interior could withdraw 
the honor of landmark designation and reclaim the 
plaque and certificate. 

Many owners of national historic landmarks, 
assisted by the National Park Service, plan impres- 
sive dedication ceremonies, centering around the 
presentation of the certificate and plaque. In some 
instances the certificate is presented by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, and, on occasion, by the Presi- 
dent of the United States. Such ceremonies often 
bring whole communities together to reflect upon 
the honor bestowed and to look to a future of 
cooperation in preserving the unique values— which 
brought about landmark designation. 

Landmark designation enables the Nation to 
pay special honor to, and recognize individuals, 
sites, and buildings for their part in contributing 
to the American experiment. Identification of land- 
marks also enables Americans to learn more about 



the history of their country and to gain a greater 
appreciation of the sacrifices of those who have 
gone before them. 

For the individuals, institutions, historical soci- 
eties, and public authorities who own or administer 
national historic landmarks, there is a personal satis- 
faction that the property has been duly recognized— 
and that its history and features will be recorded 
for posterity. National historic landmarks are auto- 
matically listed in the National Register of Historic 
Places. Some landmarks, which contain buildings, 
may have them architecturally studied and meas- 
ured by the Historic American Buildings Survey— 
another preservation program of the National Park 
Service. These measured drawings are deposited in 
the Library of Congress to serve as a permanent 
record should the building be destroyed at some 
later time. The public may also read about the 
properties in the national historic landmark book 
series. Each volume contains an introductory nar- 
rative on a major theme and site descriptions of 
the landmarks. The books in this growing educa- 
tional series are available from the Superintendent 
of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C. 20402. 

Landmark status is not merely an honor con- 
veyed to static brick and mortar or visible architec- 
tural features, but in a human way to those indi- 
viduals whose courage and creativity made possible 
something which would one day have significance 
for the Nation. Thus, an owner-conservator may 
have a personal, as well as a community reason, for 
preserving a national historic landmark— both a tes- 
tament to the past and a guidepost to the future. 

The Secretary of the Interior, through the 
National Park Service, provides continuing counsel 
and advice on the preservation of our national his- 
toric landmarks— an irreplaceable national heritage. 



Note on arrangement of entries 

In this listing of the national historic landmarks, the fol- 
lowing format is used. The historic name of the landmark is 
given with its location and the historic date or historical 
period involved. This is followed by a short statement on 
the significance of the property. The final date given is that 
on which the property was designated as a national historic 
landmark by the Secretary of the Interior. 



Alabama 



APALACHICOLA FORT, 1.5 miles east of Holy Trinity on 
Chattahoochee River, Russell County, 1690. 

Northernmost Spanish outpost on the Chattahoochee River, 
built to prevent English inroads among the lower Creek 
Indians. July 19, 1964. 

BARTON HALL, Colbert County. 1840's, Armstead Bar- 
ton. 

Large two-story frame structure, expressing a form of 
Greek Revival architecture unusual for Alabama. November 
7, 1973. 

CITY HALL, 111 South Royal Street, Mobile, Mobile 
County. 1858. 

Built originally as a market place, this Greek Revival brick 
building served as an armory during the Civil War. Novem- 
ber 7, 1973. 

CURRY, J. L. M., HOME, 3 miles northeast of Talladega on 
Ala. 21, Talladega County. Early 19th century. 
Curry was instrumental in developing public education and 
teacher training programs in the South in the late 19th 
century. December 21, 1965. 

DEXTER AVENUE BAPTIST CHURCH, 454 Dexter Ave- 
nue, Montgomery, Montgomery County. 1878. 
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., pastor of the church from 
1954-1959, organized the black boycott of segregated city 
buses here in 1955. Boycott brought him national promi- 
nence as a civil rights leader. May 30, 1974. 

FIRST CONFEDERATE CAPITOL (ALABAMA STATE 
CAPITOL), Goat Hill, east end of Dexter Avenue, Mont- 
gomery, Montgomery County. 1851, George Nichols. 

Site of adoption of Confederate Constitution, inauguration 
of Jefferson Davis as first President of the Confederacy, and 
first sessions of the Confederate Congress (1861). Decem- 
ber 19, 1960. 

FORT MORGAN, western terminus of Ala. 180, Gasque 
vicinity, Baldwin County. 1833-1834. 

Fort was significant in Admiral Farragut's 1864 naval battle 
which opened Mobile Bay to the Union Navy and sealed off 
the port to Confederate shipping. December 19, 1960. 

FORT TOULOUSE, 4 miles southwest of Wetumpka at 
confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers, Elmore 
County. 1717. 

Provided protection for settlements and was potentially 
useful in extending French influence in the Southeast. 
October 9, 1960. 



ALASKA 

GAINESWOOD, 805 S. Cedar Street, Demopolis, Marengo 
County. 1842-1860, Nathan Bryan Whitfield. 

Reflects the trend in American architecture from Greek to 
Renaissance Revival and the Italianate. March 3, 1974. 

MOUNDVILLE SITE, 1 mile west of Moundville on 
County Route 21, Hale County. 1000-1500. 
Ceremonial temple mound site with 20 extant mounds, 
museum displaying site artifacts, and burial areas. Repre- 
sents a major period of Mississippian culture in the South- 
ern United States. July 19, 1964. 

ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH, Prairieville, Hale County. 

Gothic-design country church built by members' slaves, 
under the direction of master-carpenter slaves. November 7, 
1973. 

SWAYNE HALL, TALLADEGA COLLEGE, Talladega, 
Talladega County. 1857. 

Oldest building on the campus, built by slave labor before 
the establishment of the school. Talladega pursued a liberal 
arts program at a time when vocationalism dominated 
Negro education. December 2, 1974. 

WILSON DAM, Tennessee River on U.S. 72, Florence 
vicinity, Colbert and Lauderdale Counties. 1918-1925. 
Constructed during World War I to provide power for 
manufacturing war supplies. First hydroelectric operation 
to come under the Tennessee Valley Authority. November 
13, 1966. 

YANCEY, WILLIAM LOWNDES, LAW OFFICE, Adams 
and Perry Streets, Montgomery, Montgomery County. 19th 
century. 

Yancey led Alabama's secession movement and the cause 
for Southern independence. November 7, 1973. 



Alaska 



AMERICAN FLAG RAISING SITE, Castle Hill, Sitka, 
Southeastern District. 1867. 

The lowering of the Russian flag and the raising of the 
American flag here symbolized the transfer of sovereignty 
over Alaska. June 13, 1962. 

ANVIL CREEK GOLD DISCOVERY SITE, 4.25 miles 
north of Nome on Seward Peninsula at Anvil Creek, 
Northwestern District. 1898. 

Alaska's gold rush began here. Within two years mining 
activities spread to the entire peninsula. December 21, 
1965. 



ALASKA 

BIRNIRK SITE, 5 miles northeast of Barrow, Northwestern 
District, C. 600-800 A.D. 

A series of mounds provides archeological information on 
the development of Eskimo culture in this area from A.D. 
600. December 29, 1962. 

CAPE KRUSENSTERN ARCHEOLOGICAL DISTRICT, 

60 miles north of Arctic Circle, Northwestern District, 
Kobuk Division, northeast of Seward Peninsula. 11,000 
B.C.-5,000B.C. 

Marine beach ridges here contain evidence of nearly every 
major cultural period in arctic history. November 7, 1973. 

CHALUKA SITE, Nikolski vicinity, Umnak Island, Aleu- 
tian Islands, Southcentral District. 1800 B.C. 

Site contains a village mound appearing to represent all the 
periods of culture identified in this region. December 29, 
1962. 

CHURCH OF THE ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN 
MARY, east shore of Cook Inlet, Kenai, Southcentral 
District, c. 1894. 

Considered the best preserved example in Alaska of a 19th- 
century Russian Orthodox church with a quadrilateral 
ground plan. April 15, 1970. 

CHURCH OF THE HOLY ASCENSION, Dutch Harbor, 
Unalaska Island, Southcentral District. 1826, 1894. 

Constructed by the descendants of Russian fur traders who 
established an outpost here about 1766. An earlier church 
was incorporated into the present structure. April 15, 1970. 

ERSKINE HOUSE, Main and Mission Streets, Kodiak, 
Kodiak Island, Southcentral District. 1793-1794. 

Erected as an office and fur warehouse. Oldest Russian 
building standing in the United States. June 13, 1962. 

FUR SEAL ROOKERIES, St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, 
Southcentral District. 1787. 

Seal herds have attracted fur hunters here since the 18th 
century. Greatest single source of seal furs in the world. 
June 13, 1962. 

GAMBELL SITES, Northwest Cape, St. Lawrence Island, 
Northwestern District, c. 100. 

House and village sites formed over a period of 2000 years. 
First sites in the Greater Bering Strait region to be 
archeologically investigated. December 29, 1962. 

IPIUTAK SITE, tip of Point Hope, Point Hope Peninsula, 
Northwestern District. 300. 

Largest known Paleo-Eskimo community, covering 200 
acres of tundra. Reveals a prehistoric culture to which later 
Eskimo groups belonged. January 20, 1961. 

IYATAYET SITE, Norton Sound, Cape Denbigh Peninsula, 



ALASKA / ARIZONA 

Northwestern District. 6000-4000 B.C. 

One of the earliest sites yet found. Evidence here supports 
the assumption that the first people in the Americas came 
south from Alaska. January 20, 1961. 

PALUGVIK SITE, 3.75 miles east of Rip Rock on Prince 
William Sound, Hawkins Island, Southcentral District. 
1200. 

Gives evidence of a long-established Eskimo culture on the 
Pacific bays and islands of southern Alaska. December 29, 
1962. 

ST. MICHAEL'S CATHEDRAL, Lincoln and Maksoutoff 
Streets, Sitka, Southeastern District. 1848-1850; 20th 
century, reconstructed. 

Spiritual center of the Russian Church in Alaska. One of 
the finest examples of Russian architecture in the United 
States. June 13, 1962. 

SKAGWAY HISTORIC DISTRICT AND WHITE PASS, 

Skagway and vicinity, head of Taiya Inlet on Lynn Canal, 
Southeastern District. 1897. 

Alaskan frontier mining town, situated on the route into 
the Upper Yukon Valley and Klondike gold-bearing region. 
White Pass, to the northeast, is 45 miles long, maximum 
elevation 2886 feet. June 13, 1962. 

WALES SITES, adjacent to Cape Prince of Wales on Seward 
Peninsula, Northwestern District. 600-800 A.D. 
Covers periods ranging from early prehistoric times to the 
present. Includes first site in Alaska where Thule culture 
was found. December 29, 1962. 

YUKON ISLAND MAIN SITE, Kachemak Bay, Cook Inlet, 
Yukon Island, Southcentral District, c. 750 B.C. 
Oldest and most continuously occupied of the Cook Inlet 
sites. Helped define the Kachemak Bay culture. December 
29, 1962. 



Arizona 



AWATOVI RUINS, 8 miles south of Keams Canyon on 
Hopi Indian Reservation, Navajo County. 17th century. 

One of the most important Hopi Indian villages, reached by 
Coronado's men in 1540. Excavation has uncovered much 
of the pueblo. July 19, 1964. 

CASA MALPAIS SITE, 2 miles north of Springerville, 
Apache County. 1300. 

Unexcavated pueblo ruin of about 10 acres. An example of 
communal efforts at building and defending a village site. 
July 19, 1964. 



ARIZONA 

DESERT LABORATORY, west of Tucson off West Anklam 
Road on Tumamoc Hill, Pima County. 1903. 

Under the Carnegie Institution of Washington the study of 
the ecology of arid regions was initiated here. Subsequently 
used as an experiment station by the Forest Service. 
December 21, 1965. 

DOUBLE ADOBE SITE, 12 miles northwest of Douglas on 
the west bank of Whitewater Creek, Cochise County. 5700 
B.C. 

Yielded information on southern Arizona's prehistoric 
climate, ecology, and animal life, and on pre-ceramic 
Cochise culture. January 20, 1961. 

GATLIN SITE, 3 miles north of Gila Bend, Maricopa 
County. 1000-1150. 

Existence of a platform mound, cremation area, and ball 
court at this site suggests that ceremonial functions were 
connected with the complex. July 19, 1964. 

HOHOKAM-PIMA IRRIGATION SITES, Park of the Four 
Waters, Phoenix, Maricopa County. 1200-1400. 

Evidence at sites indicates that both the peoples of the 
Hohokam culture and 1 7th century Pima Indians irrigated 
crops from extensive canals of complex construction. May 
23, 1963. 

JEROME HISTORIC DISTRICT, Jerome, Yavapai County. 
1883. 

An important 20th century copper-producing center, de- 
pleted by the World War II demands. Virtually a ghost 
town, it retains much of its original appearance. November 
13, 1966. 

KINISHBA RUINS, 15 miles west of Whiteriver via Arizona 
73 and secondary road, Gila County, c. 1250-1350. 
Ruins of a pueblo capable of housing up to 1000 Indians, 
abandoned about 1400. The culture of the inhabitants 
represents a blend of Mogollon and Anasazi ancestry. July 
19, 1964. 

LEHNER MAMMOTH-KILL SITE, 10 miles west of Bisbee, 
Cochise County, c. 11,000 B.C. 

One of the outstanding mammoth-kill sites in the New 
World. Radiocarbon dates for artifacts and bones serve as a 
control for several scientific studies. May 28, 1967. 

LOWELL OBSERVATORY, 1 mile west of Flagstaff on 
Mars Hill, Coconino County. 1894. 

Astronomical research here has contributed greatly to 
knowledge of the universe. First evidence of expansion of 
universe obtained at Lowell in 1912. December 21, 1965. 

MERRIAM, C. HART, BASE CAMP SITE, 20 miles 
northwest of Flagstaff, at Little Springs, a private enclave in 
Coconino National Forest, Coconino County. 1889. 



10 



ARIZONA 

Operating from this camp, Merriam made the investigations 
that led to his formulation of the Life Zone concept, basic 
to the development of the science of ecology. December 
21, 1965. 

OLD ORAIBI, 3 miles west of Oraibi on Ariz. 264, Hopi 
Indian Reservation, Navajo County. 1300-present. 

Oldest continually inhabited pueblo in the Southwest. Site 
indicates one of the least changed Indian cultures in the 
United States. July 19, 1964. 

POINT OF PINES SITES, 30 miles northwest of Morenci, 
San Carlos Indian Reservation, Graham County. 2000 
B.C-1400 A.D. 

Region of Point of Pines village contains a considerable 
number of ruins representing a long period of occupation. 
July 19, 1964. 

PUEBLO GRANDE RUIN, Washington Avenue, Pueblo 
Grande City Park, Phoenix, Maricopa County. 900-1450. 

One of the few remaining large Hohokam village sites in the 
area. Represents a period when the cultures of two distinct 
peoples were fused. July 19, 1964. 

ROOSEVELT DAM, Salt River, 31 miles northwest of 
Globe on Ariz. 88, Gila and Maricopa Counties. 1906- 
1911. 

First major project to be completed under the Reclamation 
Act of 1902. Built to provide adequate water storage for 
the Salt River Irrigation Complex. May 23, 1963. 

SAN BERNARDINO RANCH, 17 miles east of Douglas on 
the international boundary, Cochise County. Early 1800's. 

Illustrates the continuity of Spanish and American cattle 
ranching in the Southwest. Abundant springs made the 
Ranch a stopping-place in the era of westward expansion. 
July 19, 1964. 

SAN XAVIER DEL BAC, 9 miles south of Tucson via 
Mission Road, Pima County. 1700. 

One of the finest Spanish Colonial churches in the United 
States, having a richly ornamented baroque interior. Com- 
pleted and consecrated by Franciscans in 1797. October 9, 
1960. 

SIERRA BONITA RANCH, southwest of Bonita, Graham 
County. 1872. 

First American cattle ranch in Arizona to survive the 
Apache attacks. Fortress-like, it helped open the grasslands 
of Arizona to cattlemen. July 19, 1964. 

TOMBSTONE HISTORIC DISTRICT, Tombstone, Cochise 
County. 1877. 

Site of rich silver mines, Tombstone attained a population 
of 7000 by 1881. Gunfight at OK Corral symbolized its 
unrivaled reputation for lawlessness. July 4, 1961. 



11 



ARIZONA / ARKANSAS / CALIFORNIA 

VENT ANA CAVE, 11 miles west of Santa Rosa, Papago 
Indian Reservation, Pima County, c. 11,000 B.C.-20th 
century A.D. 

Illustrates early man's association with extinct Pleistocene 
mammals plus provides a history of continuous Indian oc- 
cupation in Arizona from 2000 B.C. to the present. Jan- 
uary 20, 1961. 

WINONA SITE, 5 miles northeast of Winona on U.S. 66, 
Coconino National Forest, Coconino County. 1065. 
Site of one of the major Indian villages. Yielded informa- 
tion on cultural developments in the Flagstaff area up to 
1130. July 19, 1964. 

YUMA CROSSING AND ASSOCIATED SITES, banks of 
the Colorado River, Yuma, Yuma County. 18th and 19th 
centuries. 

Significant as a transportation gateway during the Spanish 
colonial and westward expansion periods. Nearby are 
surviving buildings of Fort Yuma, Yuma Quartermaster 
Depot, and the Arizona Territorial Prison. November 13, 
1966. 



Arkansas 



NODENA SITE, south edge of Wilson, Mississippi County. 
1200. 

Type site of the Nodena phase, an important part of the 
Late Mississippian or temple mound culture in Arkansas. 
July 19, 1964. 

PARKIN INDIAN MOUND, north edge of Parkin, Cross 
County. Prehistoric. 

Exemplifies the Parkin phase, a Mississippian or temple 
mound culture component in northeast Arkansas. July 19, 
1964. 



California 



ANZA HOUSE (JUAN DE ANZA HOUSE), 3rd and 
Franklin Streets, San Juan Bautista, San Benito County. 
1820-1840. 

Original one-story, rectangular two-room adobe house was 
Americanized and enlarged in the 1850's. April 15, 1970. 

BANCROFT, HUBERT H., RANCH HOUSE, Bancroft 
Drive off Calif. 94, Spring Valley, San Diego County. 1856. 

Historian of the West, Bancroft wrote many of his major 
works and conducted plant experiments while living here. 
December 29,1962. 



12 



CALIFORNIA 

BIG AND LITTLE PETROGLYPH CANYONS, China Lake 
vicinity, China Lake Naval Ordnance Test Station, Inyo 
County. Date Unknown. 

Most spectacular petroglyph area in the Western United 
States, with over 20,000 designs. Represents at least two 
cultural phases and a long time period. July 19, 1964. 

BODIE HISTORIC DISTRICT, 7 miles south of Bridgeport 
on U.S. 395, 12 miles east on secondary road, Mono 
County. 1859. 

More than 100 original buildings have survived, making this 
a significant western mining ghost town. July 4, 1961. 

BURBANK, LUTHER, HOUSE AND GARDEN, 200 block 
of Santa Rosa Avenue, Santa Rosa, Sonoma County. 1883. 

Includes the experimental garden and original greenhouse 
A,sed by Burbank, an internationally-known horticulturist 
whose work produced many new plant varieties. July 19, 
1964. 

CARMEL MISSION, Rio Road, Carmel, Monterey County. 
1771. 

Established by Father Junipero Serra. Used as the head- 
quarters of the <( padre presidente," it was the most 
mportant of the California missions. October 9, 1960. 

CASTRO, JOSE, HOUSE, south side of the Plaza, San Juan 
Bautista, San Benito County. 1840-1841. 
\dobe structure built by the commandant general of 
lorthem California. Sold in 1848 to a survivor of the 
narooned Donner Party. April 15, 1970. 

2. A. THAYER, San Francisco Maritime State Historic 
*ark, San Francisco, San Francisco County, 1895. 

Last surviving example of the sailing schooners designed 
'specially for use in the 19th century Pacific coast lumber 
rade. November 13, 1966. 

^OLOMA, 7 miles northwest of Placerville on Calif. 49, El 
Dorado County. 1848. 

Zoloma grew up around the gold discovery site at nearby 
Gutter's Mill. First white settlement in the foothills of the 
tierra Nevadas. July 4, 1961. 

:OLUMBIA HISTORIC DISTRICT, 4 miles northwest of 
Jonora on Calif. 49, Tuolumne County. 1850. 

Veil-preserved gold-mining camp of the California Mother 
\,ode region, productive until about 1860. Continuously 
occupied since its beginning. July 4, 1961. 

:OMMANDER'S HOUSE, FORT ROSS STATE HISTORI- 
:AL MONUMENT, north of Fort Ross on Calif. 1 , Sonoma 
:ounty. 1812. 

Excellent, rare and little-altered example of a Russian-built 
og house. Built of large hand-squared redwood timbers 
nortised at the comers. April 15, 1970. 



13 



CALIFORNIA 

DONNER CAMP, 2.6 miles west of Truckee on U.S. 40, 
Nevada County. 1846. 

High Sierras site where a California-bound group of 
emigrants was marooned by winter storms, with 45 
survivors out of a party of 89. January 20, 1961. 

ESTUDILLO HOUSE, 4000 Mason Street, San Diego, San 
Diego County. 1827-1829. 

Don Jose Antonio Estudillo, the builder of this 12-room 
adobe house, eventually became mayor and justice of the 
peace for San Diego. April 15, 1970. 

FIRST PACIFIC COAST SALMON CANNERY SITE, on 
Sacramento River, opposite the foot of K Street, Broderick, 
Yolo County. 1864-1866. 

Salmon-canning techniques were perfected in a cannery 
situated on a scow anchored in the River. Developed into a 
multi-million dollar industry. April 6, 1964. 

FLOOD, JAMES C, MANSION, northwest corner of 
California and Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco 
County. 1886. 

Owned by one of the bonanza kings of the Nevada 
Comstock Lode. Only Nob Hill townhouse to survive the 
1906 fire and earthquake. November 13, 1966. 

FORT ROSS, north of Fort Ross on Calif. 1, Fort Ross 
State Historical Monument, Sonoma County. 1812. 

Largest single Russian trading center south of Alaska. 
Founded as part of their fur trading operation, it repre- 
sented a Russian attempt to colonize California. November 
5, 1961. 

GONZALES HOUSE, 835 Laguna Street, Santa Barbara, 

Santa Barbara County, c. 1825. 

Named for its builder, this one-story house has two 

one-room wings, covered verandas, and a tile roof. April 15, 

1970. 

GUAJOME RANCH HOUSE, 2.5 miles northeast of Vista, 
San Diego County. 1852-1853. 

One of the few extant haciendas with a double courtyard. 
Indian labor was utilized in its construction. April 15, 
1970. 

GUNTHER ISLAND SITE 67 (TOLOWOT), northeast end 
of Gunther Island in Humboldt Bay north of Eureka, 
Humboldt County. Late prehistoric. 

Site of a shell mound on which was located a Wiyot Indian 
village. Significant as the type site of the late prehistoric 
period for this coastal region. July 19, 1964. 

LAKE MERRITT WILD DUCK REFUGE, Lakeside Park 
Grand Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County. 1870. 
A 160-acre saltwater body located in Oakland's business 
district. Oldest legally established public wildlife sanctuary 
in the United States. May 23, 1963. 



14 



CALIFORNIA 

LA PURISIMA MISSION, 4 miles east of Lompoc, near the 
intersection of Calif. 1 and 150, Santa Barbara County. 
Early 19th century; reconstructed, 1935-1942. 

First mission, founded in 1787, was destroyed by earth- 
quake in 1812. Present buildings are a reconstruction of a 
second mission which fell into disrepair after secularization 
in 1834. April 15, 1970. 

LARKIN HOUSE, 464 Calle Principal, Monterey, Monterey 
County. 1834-1835. 

Residence of the State's first Military Governor. Designed 
in the Monterey style, rather than the more traditional 
abode style. December 19, 1960. 

LAS FLORES ADOBE, west side of Stuart Mesa Road 
about 7 miles north of Vandegrift Boulevard junction, 
Camp Joseph H. Pendleton, San Diego County. 1867-1868. 

Little-altered example of a Monterey Colonial ranch house, 
a building style unique to California. Combines elements of 
the Spanish-Mexican adobe with the New England frame 
structure. November 24, 1968. 

LONDON, JACK, RANCH, 0.4 mile west of Glen Ellen, 
ack London Historical State Park, Sonoma County. 1905. 

An important 20th century American author, London 
wrote several of his major novels here and is buried on the 
property. December 29, 1962. 

LOS ALAMOS RANCH HOUSE, 3 miles west of Los 
Alamos on Old U.S. 101, Santa Barbara County, c. 1840. 

Good example of a Spanish-Mexican hacienda. Located on 
the main Santa Barbara-Monterey Road, it was a popular 
overnight stopping-place. April 15, 1970. 

LOS CERRITOS RANCH HOUSE, 4600 Virginia Road, 
Long Beach, Los Angeles County. 1844. 

Combines Monterey Colonial architecture with a traditional 
Spanish-Mexican hacienda plan. April 15, 1970. 

LOWER KLAMATH NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, 

lower Klamath Lake, east of Dorris, Siskiyou County. 
1908. 

Set aside by President Theodore Roosevelt as one of the 
first areas of public land to be reserved as a Federal wildlife 
sanctuary. January 12, 1965. 

MILLER, JOAQUIN, HOUSE (THE ABBEY), Joaquin 

Miller Road and Sanborn Drive, Oakland, Alameda County. 

1886. 

The first major poet of the far western frontier, Miller 

wrote about Indians, cowboys, and western scenic beauty. 

December 29, 1962. 

MONTEREY OLD TOWN HISTORIC DISTRICT, Mon- 
rey, Monterey County. Two districts, northern and 
southern; southern district bounded on the west by Dutra 
Street, on the east by Madison Street, on the south by Polk 



15 



CALIFORNIA 

Street, and on the north by Jefferson Street; northern 
district bounded by Pacific Street on the west, Scott Street 
on the south, Alvarado Street on the east, and Decatur 
Street on the north. 19th century. 

Monterey served as the Spanish and Mexican capital of 
California from 1776 to 1849 and was a center of political, 
economic, and social activity. Forty-three 19th century 
adobe structures are located in the District. April 15, 1970. 

NEW ALMADEN, 14 miles south of San Jose on County 
Route G8, Santa Clara County. 1824. 

Site of the first mercury deposit discovered in North 
America. Mercury from New Almaden's mines was essential 
to the mining process during the gold rush. July 4, 1961. 

NIXON, RICHARD M., BIRTHPLACE, 18061 Yorba 
Linda Boulevard, Yorba Linda, Orange County. 1912. 

Small California-style house, erected by the father of the 
thirty-seventh President of the United States, born here in 
1913. May 31, 1973. 

NORRIS, FRANK, CABIN, 10 miles west of Gilroy via 
Calif. 152 and secondary roads. Santa Clara County, 
c. 1900. 

A writer of the American naturalist school, Norris lived 
here prior to his death in 1902. Surrounded by magnificent 
redwoods, the cabin is in its original condition. December 
29, 1962. 

OAK GROVE BUTTERFIELD STAGE STATION, 13 

miles northwest of Warner Springs on Calif. 79, San Diego 
County. 1858. 

Only original stage station remaining on the Butt erf ield 
Overland Mail Route, which operated between San Fran- 
cisco and two eastern terminals from 1858 to 1861. 
November 5, 1961. 

OLD CUSTOMHOUSE (U.S. CUSTOMHOUSE), Calle Prin- 
cipal at Decatur Street, Monterey, Monterey County. 
1827-1846. 

The raising of the American flag here on July 7, 1846 
officially marked the beginning of United States authority 
in California. December 19, 1960. 

OLD MISSION DAM, north side of Mission Street-Gorge 
Road, San Diego, San Diego County. 1800-1817. 

First major irrigation-engineering project on the Pacific 
coast. Water from the dam irrigated the fields around the 
Mission of San Diego. May 21, 1963. 

OLD SACRAMENTO HISTORIC DISTRICT, junctions of 
U.S. 40, 50, 99 and Calif. 16 and 24, Sacramento, 
Sacramento County. 1849-1850. 

The city's river port was an important transportation center i 
for the Sierra Nevada gold mines in 1849. A large number 
of buildings dating from this period remain in the original 
business district. January 12, 1965. 



16 



CALIFORNIA 

OLD UNITED STATES MINT, 5th and Mission Streets, 
San Francisco, San Francisco County. 1869-1874. 

Became the principal mint in the United States in the 19th 
century and chief Federal deposit for gold and silver mined 
in the West. One of the few downtown bidldings to survive 
the 1906 earthquake. July 4, 1961. 

PETALUMA ADOBE, 4 miles east of Petaluma on Casa 
Grande Road, Sonoma County. 1836-1846. 

Largest existing example of domestic adobe architecture in 
the United States. Built by the commandant of the Sonoma 
Pueblo as headquarters for his ranch. April 15, 1970. 

PONY EXPRESS TERMINAL (B.F. HASTINGS BUILD- 
ING), 1006 2nd Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, 
1853. 

Housed the original western terminal of the Pony Express 
from April, 1860, to March, 1861. Previous tenants had 
included the State Supreme Court and Wells, Fargo and 
Company. July 4, 1961. 

PRESIDIO, THE, northern tip of San Francisco Peninsula 
on U.S. 101 and Int. 480, San Francisco, San Francisco 
County. 1776. 

Established by the Spanish to guard the entrance to San 
Francisco harbor. Headquarters of the United States Army 
on the Pacific Coast since 1849. June 13, 1962. 

RALSTON, WILLIAM C, HOME, College of Notre Dame 
campus, Belmont, San Mateo County, 1864-1868, attrib- 
uted to Henry Cleaveland. 

Ralston's activities helped make the city a financial center. 
From 1864-1875 he played a major role in exploiting the 
Comstock Lode mines in Nevada. November 13, 1966. 

ROOM 307, GILMAN HALL, UNIVERSITY OF CALI- 
FORNIA, University of California campus, Berkeley, Ala- 
meda County. 1941. 

Man-made element plutonium first identified in this labo- 
ratory. Used in both nuclear reactors and atomic explosives. 
December 21, 1965. 

ROYAL PRESIDIO CHAPEL, 550 Church Street, Mon- 
terey County. 1789. 

Only remaining presidio chapel in California and the sole 
existing structure of the original Monterey Presidio. Royal 
Spanish Governors worshipped here and state ceremonies 
were held here. October 9, 1960. 

SAN DIEGO MISSION CHURCH, Mission Road, 5 miles 
east of San Diego, San Diego County. 1808-1813. 

Founded by Father Junipero Serra in 1 769, and the first of 
the 21 California missions. Used also as an Indian school 
and boys' home. April 15, 1970. 

SAN DIEGO PRESIDIO, Presidio Park, San Diego, San 
Diego County. 1769. 



17 



CALIFORNIA 

Site of the first permanent European settlement on the 
Pacific coast. Used as a base for exploratory expeditions 
into the interior and as the military headquarters for 
southern California. October 9, 1960. 

SAN FRANCISCO BAY DISCOVERY SITE, 4 miles west 
of San Bruno via Skyline Drive and Sneath Lane, San Mateo 
County. 1769. 

Discovery of this great inland bay was a major achievement 
of Spanish exploration. Led to the founding of the mission 
and presidio of San Francisco in 1 776. May 23, 1968. 

SAN FRANCISCO CABLE CARS, San Francisco, San 
Francisco County. 1873. 

Ten miles of cable car track remain of the original 112 
miles. Only cable car tracks still operating in the United 
States. January 29, 1964. 

SAN JUAN BAUTISTA PLAZA HISTORIC DISTRICT, 
San Juan Bautista, San Benito County. Beginning at the 
intersection of Washington and 2nd Streets, northwest 
along 2nd to Mariposa Street, northeast on Mariposa to 1st 
Street, southeast on 1st to Washington Street, southwest on 
Washington to 2nd Street. 19th century. 
Composed of 5 buildings, all facing the Plaza and all com- 
pleted between 1813 and 1874: Plaza Hall, Plaza Stable, 
Castro House, Plaza Hotel, mission, church. April 15, 
1970. 

SAN LUIS REY MISSION CHURCH, 4 miles east of 
Oceanside on Calif. 76, San Diego County. 1811-1815. 

Present building was one of two cruciform mission churches 
erected in California by the Spanish. Rededicated in 1893 
as a Franciscan college. April 15, 1970. 

SANTA BARBARA MISSION, 2201 Laguna Street, Santa 
Barbara County. 1786. 

Became the Franciscan capital and the see of the first 
Spanish Bishop. Present church, the fourth on the site, was 
completed in 1820. October 9, 1960. 

SINCLAIR, UPTON, HOUSE, 464 N. Myrtle Avenue, 
Monrovia, Los Angeles County. 20th century. 

Sinclair, a writer and social critic, moved into this neo- 
Mediterranean house in 1942, and continued his political 
writing here. November 11, 1971. 

SONOMA PLAZA, center of Sonoma, Sonoma County. 
1846. 

The raising of the Bear Flag in the Plaza in 1846 
represented the beginning of the American revolt against 
Mexican rule in California. December 19, 1960. 

STAR OF INDIA, San Diego Embarcadero, San Diego, San 
Diego County. 1863. 

A three-masted, iron-hulled vessel, the only extant Alaska^ 



18 



CALIFORNIA / COLORADO 

salmon bark. Used to carry fishermen and cannery employ- 
ees to the Alaskan fisheries. November 13, 1966. 

SUTTER'S FORT, 2701 L Street, Sacramento, Sacramento 
County. 1839. 

Located at the convergence of overland immigrant trails, 
the Fort was an invaluable aid to American settlement of 
California. January 20, 1961. 

TAO HOUSE (EUGENE O'NEILL HOUSE) 1.5 miles west 

of Danville, Contra Costa County. 1937. Frederick L. 

Confer and Associates. 

O'Neill, winner of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1936, 

wrote some of his most significant works here. July 17, 

1971. 

WALKER PASS, 60 miles northeast of Bakersfield on Calif. 
178, Kern County. 1834. 

Named for its discoverer, Joseph R. Walker, a fur trapper 
and guide. Walker led the first immigrant wagon train into 
California through this pass in 1843. July 4, 1961. 

WARNER'S RANCH, 4 miles south of Warner Springs on 
secondary road, San Diego County. 1831. 
Stopping-place for travelers on the southern route into 
California. Became a station of the Butterfield Overland 
Mail Route in 1858. January 20, 1961. 

WELL NO. 4, PICO CANYON OIL FIELD, 9.6 miles north 
of San Fernando and west of U.S. 99, Los Angeles County. 
1876. 

Birthplace of California's petroleum industry and the first 
commercially successful well in the State. November 13, 
1966. 

YUMA CROSSING AND ASSOCIATED SITES, banks of 
the Colorado River, near Winterhaven, Imperial County. 
18th and 19th centuries. 

Significant as a transportation gateway during the Spanish 
Colonial and westward expansion periods. Nearby are 
surviving buildings of Fort Yuma, Yuma Quartermaster 
Depot, and the Arizona Territorial Prison. November 13, 
1966. 



Colorado 



CENTRAL CITY HISTORIC DISTRICT, Central City, 
Gilpin County, c. 1860. 

Central City was the heart of the first great mining boom in 
Colorado, and is well-preserved in appearance and atmos- 
phere. A cultural center in the 187 0's and 1880's and the 
cradle of most of the State's mining laws. July 4, 1961. 



19 



COLORADO 

CRIPPLE CREEK HISTORIC DISTRICT, Cripple Creek, 
Teller County. 1891. 

One of the world's largest gold fields, yielding almost 25 
million dollars in 1901. Most of original structures de- 
stroyed by fire in 1 906. July 4, 1961. 

DURANGO-SILVERTON NARROW-GAUGE RAIL- 
ROAD, right-of-way between Durango and Silverton, La 
Plata and San Juan Counties. 1882. 

Built originally to haul ores from isolated areas to smelters. 
Only passenger railroad of its kind in the United States. 
July 4,1961. 

GEORGETOWN-SILVER PLUME HISTORIC DISTRICT, 

Georgetown-Silver Plume vicinity, Clear Creek County. 
Mid-1 9th to early 20th century. 

Area flourished originally because of gold and silver 
production. The two communities have retained much oj 
their 19th century boom-town atmosphere. November 13, 
1966. 

LEADVILLE HISTORIC DISTRICT, Leadville, Lake 
County. 1860. 

Leadville mines have yielded minerals of higher total value 
than any other mining district in the country. Large 
number of early structures survive. July 4, 1961. 

LINDENMEIER SITE, 28 miles north of Fort Collins, 1.75 
miles south of Wyoming State line. Larimer County. 9000 
B.C. 

Only extensive Folsom camp site yet known, providing a 
picture of the life of the early hunters. January 20, 1961. 

LOWRY RUIN, 30 miles northwest of Cortez via U.S. 160 
and secondary road, Pleasant View vicinity, Montezuma 
County, c. 1100. 

Pueblo of 50 rooms, unusual in that it has a great kiva, a 
large ceremonial structure more commonly found in Ari- 
zona and New Mexico. July 19, 1964. 

PIKES PEAK, 15 miles west of Colorado Springs, Pike! 

National Forest, El Paso County. 

Discovered by Zebulon Pike in 1806, although long familiar 

to Indians and Spaniards. Elevation 14,110 feet. July 4, 

1961. 

PIKE'S STOCKADE, 4 miles east of Sanford on Colo. 136 
Conejos County. 1807. 

Zebulon Pike raised the American flag over Spanish soil at 
the Stockade after leading the second official United Statel 
expedition into the Louisiana Territory. July 4, 1961. 

RATON PASS, U.S. 85-87, Colorado-New Mexico border 
Raton vicinity, Las Animas County. 
From 1861 to 1865 much of the traffic to Santa Fe crossei 
the Pass, as hostile Indians halted traffic over the Cimarroi 
Cutoff Route. December 19, 1960. 



20 



COLORADO / CONNECTICUT 

SILVERTON HISTORIC DISTRICT, Silverton, San Juan 
County. Late 19th century. 

One of the two principal mining towns in southwestern 
Colorado. Important in the economic development of the 
Rocky Mountain area. July 4, 1961. 

rELLURIDE HISTORIC DISTRICT, Telluride, San Miguel 
County. Late 19th century. 

Boom-period as a gold camp came after the narrow-gauge 
railroad was built to Telluride in 1890. July 4, 1961. 



Connecticut 



ARMSMEAR (SAMUEL COLT HOME), 80 Wethersfield 
Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County. 1855. 

Built by the inventor of the Colt revolver, a weapon 
oopularized by the Mexican War. November 13, 1966. 

BARNARD, HENRY, HOUSE, 118 Main Street, Hartford, 
Hartford County. 1807. 

Barnard stimulated the growth of the public school system. 
Appointed first U.S. Commissioner of Education in 1867 
by President Andrew Johnson. December 21, 1965. 

BUTTOLPH-WILLIAMS HOUSE, 249 Broad Street, Weth- 
ersfield, Hartford County. 1692. 

Example of a 1 Ith-century frame house of medieval design. 
Altered during the 18th and 19th centuries, it has been 
r estored to its original appearance. November 24, 1968. 

CHARLES W. MORGAN, Mystic Seaport, Mystic, New 
London County. 1841. 

Last of the 19th-century wooden whaling vessels. "The 
Morgan" sailed in pursuit of whales for almost 80 years. 
November 13, 1960. 

CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STA- 
TION, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, New Haven 
County. 1882-1883. 

First such station in the Nation. Consistently contributed 
to American agricultural development. July 19, 1964. 

CONNECTICUT HALL, YALE UNIVERSITY, bounded by 
High, Chapel, Elm, and College Streets, New Haven, New 
Haven County. 1750-1752. 

Only pre-Revolutionary building on the campus. Lone 
survivor of "Brick Row," a group of Georgian-style 
buildings. December 21, 1965. 

CONNECTICUT STATE CAPITOL, Capitol Avenue, Hart- 
ford, Hartford County. 1872-1880, Richard M. Upjohn. 

Three-story marble and granite edifice highlighted by a tall 
central dome. Marble statues of famous State citizens adorn 
ill sides of the Capitol. December 30, 1970. 



21 



CONNECTICUT 

DANA, JAMES DWIGHT, HOUSE, 24 Hillhouse Avenue, 
New Haven, New Haven County. 1849, Henry Austin. 
Dana, a professor of geology at Yale, broadened the scope 
of the science to include the study of the geologic history 
of the world. January 12, 1965. 

DEANE, SILAS, HOUSE, 203 Main Street, Wethersfield, 
Hartford County. 1764. 

Deane was a Delegate to the First Continental Congress and 
involved in the effort to develop Franco- American trade. 
November 28,1972. 

HUNTINGTON, SAMUEL, BIRTHPLACE, Conn. 14, two 
miles west of Conn. 97, Scotland, Windham County. 18th 
century. 

Huntington, President of the Continental Congress from 
1779 to 1781, and elected Governor of Connecticut in 
1 786, was born in this large, two-story, frame, saltbox 
house. November 11, 1971. 

KIMBERLY MANSION, 1625 Main Street, Glastonbury, 
Hartford County. 18th century. 

Associated with pioneer feminist leaders Abby and Julia 
Smith, who refused to pay their taxes because they were 
not franchised. May 30, 1974. 



LITCHFIELD HISTORIC DISTRICT, east and west sides 
of North and South Streets, to the rear property lines, from 
Prospect Street on the north to Gallows Lane on the south, 
the Village Green between East and West Streets, and 
structures fronting on the northeast side of the Green, 
Litchfield, Litchfield County. Late 18th century. 
One of New England's best surviving examples of a late 
18th-century town. Served as a trading center on Connecti- 
cut's northwest frontier until the late 1 700's. November 24, 
1968. 

LOCKWOOD-MATHEWS MANSION, 295 West Avenue, 
Norwalk, Fairfield County, c. 1864, Detlef Lienau. 
Good local example of Chateauesque architecture. Rooms 
are arranged around a central octagonal rotunda lighted by 
a four-story skylight. December 30, 1970. 

MARSH, OTHNIEL C, HOUSE, 360 Prospect Street, New 
Haven, New Haven County. 1878. 
Marsh was America's first professor of paleontology and the 
initiator of Yale scientific expeditions to the West. January 
12, 1965. 

MATHER, STEPHEN TYNG, HOME, Stephen Matherj 
Road, Darien, Fairfield County. 1778. 

Largely responsible for the creation of the National Parkl 
Service, Mather organized 21 parks into a National Park 
System and instituted visitor interpretive programs. Novem- 
ber 27, 1963. 



22 



CONNECTICUT 

MONTE CRISTO COTTAGE (EUGENE O'NEILL 
HOUSE), 325 Pequot Avenue, New London, New London 
County. 1888-1919. 

O'Neill, one of America's outstanding dramatists, spent 
most of his early summers in this cottage and probably 
wrote his first plays here. July 17, 1971. 

SEW HAVEN GREEN HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded 
by Chapel, College, Elm, and Church Streets, New Haven, 
Sew Haven County. 1812-1816. 

On the east side of the Green stand Center Church and 
United Church (Federal style) and Trinity Church (Gothic 
Revival style), all erected between 1812-1816. December 
30, 1970. 

3LD NEWGATE PRISON, Newgate Road, East Granby, 
Hartford County. 18th century. 

Held British and Tory prisoners during the Revolution and 
became Connecticut's first State prison in 1 790. November 
28, 1972. 

3LD STATEHOUSE, Main Street at Central Row, Hart- 
Ford, Hartford County. 1796, Charles Bulfinch. 
Site of the Hartford Convention of 1814, which voiced 
Wew England's opposition to the War of 1812 and resulted 
'n a weakened Federalist Party. December 19, 1960. 

REEVE, TAPPING, HOUSE AND LAW SCHOOL, South 
Street, Litchfield, Litchfield County. 1772, house; 1784, 
law school. 

First proprietary law school in the United States; it stands 
reside its founder's house. Aaron Burr and John C. Calhoun 
vere among the graduates. December 21, 1965. 

REMINGTON, FREDERICK, HOUSE, Ridgefield, Fairfield 
County. 1909. 

Remington realistically documented the life of the post- 
Civil War West in his art work. Fieldstone and shingle 
two-story house was his design. December 21, 1965. 

ROGERS, JOHN, STUDIO, 10 Cherry Street, New Canaan, 
Fairfield County. 1877. 

Rogers, an American sculptor of the 19th century, became 
famous for his "Rogers' groups," depicting literary and 
Civil War themes. December 21, 1965. 

STANLEY-WHITMAN HOUSE, 37 High Street, Farming- 
:on, Hartford County, c. 1660. 

Representative of those few surviving frame houses built in 
i 7th-century New England. October 9, 1960. 

rRUMBULL, JOHN, BIRTHPLACE (GOVERNOR JON- 
ATHAN TRUMBULL HOUSE), The Common, Lebanon, 
Stew London County, c. 1735. 

Trumbull was commissioned in 1817 to paint four Revolu- 
ionary War scenes for the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol. 
December 21, 1965. 



23 



CONNECTICUT / DELAWARE 

TWAIN, MARK, HOME, 351 Farmington Avenue, Hart- 
ford, Hartford County. 1874, Edward T. Potter and Alfred 
H. Thorp. 

The bulk of Twain's literary work was written here, 
including Tom Sawyer. Porch of the house resembles the 
deck of a Mississippi River steamboat. December 29, 1962. 

WEBB, JOSEPH, HOUSE, 211 Main Street, Wethersfield, 
Hartford County. 1752. 

In the spring of 1781, General George Washington and the 
Count de Rochambeau met here to plan a joint offensive 
against the English. January 20, 1961. 

WEBSTER, NOAH, BIRTHPLACE, 227 S. Main Street, 
West Hartford, Hartford County, c. 1676. 

The famous lexicographer was born here in 1758. Most 
noted for American Dictionary of the English Language 
(1828). December 29, 1962. 

WILLIAMS, WILLIAM, HOUSE, intersection of Conn. 207 
and Conn. 87, Lebanon, New London County. 18th 
century. 

Williams was a Delegate from Connecticut to the Continen- 
tal Congress and a signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. November 11, 1971. 

WOLCOTT, OLIVER, HOUSE, South Street, Litchfield, 
Litchfield County. 1753. 

Wolcott was a State senator, a Delegate to the Continental 
Congress and a signer of the Declaration of Independence 
for Connecticut. November 11, 1971. 

Delaware 



ASPENDALE, 1 mile west of Kenton on Del. 300, Kent 
County. 1771-1773. 

A two-story Georgian brick dwelling with a gable roof and 
two sets of twin end chimneys. A frame wing may predate 
the main brick portion of the house. April 15, 1970. 

BROOM, JACOB, HOUSE, Montchanin, New Castle 
County. 18th century. 

Broom was a signer of the Constitution, served in the 
Delaware Legislature, and in 1786 attended the Annapolis 
Convention. December 2, 1974. 

CORBIT-SHARP HOUSE, southwest corner of Main and 
2nd Streets, Odessa, New Castle County. 1772-1774. 
This house marks the height of the late Georgian style in 
Delaware's domestic architecture. December 24, 1967. 

DICKINSON, JOHN, HOUSE, 5 miles southeast of Dover 
and 0.3 miles east of U.S. 113 on Kitts Hummock Road, 
Kent County. 1740. 

Dickinson served in the Delaware and Pennsylvania legisla- 



24 



DELAWARE / DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

tures, was a member of the Stamp Act Congress, the First 
and Second Continental Congresses, and the 1787 Constitu- 
tional Convention. January 20, 1 961 . 

ELEUTHERIAN MILLS, north of Wilmington on Del. 141 
at Brandy wine Creek Bridge, New Castle County. 1802. 
Site of the powder works that revolutionized powder 
manufacturing and became the E. I. DuPont industry. 
Includes DuPont 's residence, offices, and mills. November 
13, 1966. 

FORT CHRISTINA, E. 7th Street and the Christina River, 
Fort Christina State Park, Wilmington, New Castle County. 
1638. 

First Swedish expedition to Delaware landed here. The Fort 
became the nucleus of the Swedish settlement on the river. 
November 5, 1961. 

HOLY TRINITY (OLD SWEDES) CHURCH, 7th and 

Church Streets, Wilmington, New Castle County. 1698. 
Oldest surviving church of a Delaware Valley Swedish 
congregation, built on the site of the Fort Christina 
settlement's first burial ground. November 5, 1961. 

LOMBARDY HALL, Concord Pike, Wilmington, New 
Castle County, c. 1682. 

Home of Gunning Bedford, Jr., delegate from Delaware to 
the Continental Congress, the Annapolis Convention, and 
the Constitutional Convention of 1787. December 2, 1974. 

NEW CASTLE HISTORIC DISTRICT, bordered by Har- 
mony Street, The Strand, Third and Delaware Streets, New 
Castle, New Castle County. 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th 
centuries. 

Founded by Peter Stuyvesant in 1651 as the seat of the 
New Netherlands government. Served as the Colonial 
capital of Delaware until 1 766. December 24, 1967. 

OLD COURTHOUSE, Delaware Street, between 2nd and 
3rd Streets, New Castle, New Castle County. 18th century. 
Assembly of the Three Lower Counties (Delaware) met 
here in 1689. Later housed the first State legislature. 
November 28, 1972. 

STONUM, 9th and Washington Streets, New Castle, New 
Castle County. 18th century. 

Country home of George Read, whose support led Dela- 
ware to become the first State to ratify the Constitution. 
November 7,1973. 

District of Columbia 



ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, CARNEGIE INSTITU- 
TION OF WASHINGTON, 1530 P Street NW, Washington. 
1910, Carrere and Hastings. 



25 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Built with funds donated by Andrew Carnegie, the Institu- 
tion operates the Mount Wilson Observatory and conducts 
research in the physical and biological sciences. June 23, 
1965. 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR BUILDING, 901 

Massachusetts Avenue N.W., Washington. 20th century. 
Served as the international headquarters of the A. F. of L. 
from 1916 to 1956. May 30, 1974. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY, 734 Jackson Place N.W., 

Washington. 

Victorian townhouse used as headquarters by the oldest 

organization in America dedicated solely to promoting 

international peace. Founded in the 1820's. May 30, 1974. 

ARMY MEDICAL MUSEUM AND LIBRARY, 6825 16th 
Street N.W., Washington. 

Established for the purpose of minimizing the physical 
impairment from wounds through study of surgical and 
medical specimens. January 12, 1965. 

ARTS AND INDUSTRIES BUILDING, SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION, 900 Jefferson Drive S.W., Washington. 
1879. 

Example of 19th-century "exposition" type architecture, 
characterized by a dramatic exterior, inexpensive construc- 
tion, and a large enclosed area. Built to house the foreign 
exhibits sent to the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition. 
November 11, 1971. 

ASHBURTON HOUSE (ST. JOHN'S CHURCH PARISH 
HOUSE), 1525 H Street N.W., Washington. 19th century. 
Scene of Webster-Ashburton Treaty negotiations of 1842 
resolving the dispute with Great Britain over the Canadian 
border. November 7, 1973. 

BLAIR HOUSE, 1651 Pennsylvania Avenue N.W., Washing- 
ton. 1824-1827. 

Now the Government's Official Guest Residence, Blair 
House is significant for the great number of dignitaries 
who have resided or been received there. October 29, 1937. 

CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL 
PEACE, 700 Jackson Place N.W., Washington. 

National headquarters (1910-1948) of the organization 
which Andrew Carnegie endowed with ten million dollars 
to "hasten the abolition of war." May 30, 1974. 

CHAPEL HALL, GALLAUDET COLLEGE, Florida Ave- 
nue and 7th Street N.E., Washington. 1870 Olmsted, 
Withers, and Vaux. 
A large Gothic Revival structure, part of the only institu-^ 
Hon of higher learning devoted specifically to the education, 
of the deaf. December 21, 1965. 



26 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



CITY HALL (DISTRICT COURTHOUSE), 4th and E 

Streets N.W., Washington. 1820-1849, George Hadfield. 
Trials of national interest were held here, including that of 
John Surratt, Lincoln conspirator. One of the earliest 
Federal buildings erected in the city. December 19, 1960. 

DECATUR HOUSE, 748 Jackson Place N.W., Washington. 
1818-1819, Benjamin H. Latrobe. 

Designed by one of America's first professional architects 
for Commodore Stephen Decatur, suppressor of the Bar- 
bary pirates. Later occupants included Henry Clay, Martin 
Van Buren, and Judah P. Benjamin. December 19, 1960. 

GENERAL POST OFFICE, between 7th and 8th Streets 
N.W., Washington. Built in two stages from 1839 to 1866, 
Robert Mills and Thomas U. Walter. 

This beautifully scaled and finely detailed building is a tour 
de force of restrained neo-classical design. November 11, 
1971. 

GEORGETOWN HISTORIC DISTRICT, Washington. 18th, 
19th, and 20th centuries. 

The center of the social and diplomatic life of the District 
of Columbia early in the 19th century. Most of the 
surviving buildings postdate 1800. May 28, 1967. 

GOMPERS, SAMUEL, HOUSE, 2122 1st Street N.W., 

Washington. 

This narrow three-story brick house served as Gomper's 

residence for 15 years while he was president of the 

American Federation of Labor. May 30, 1974. 

HOWARD, GENERAL OLIVER OTIS, HOUSE, 607 How- 
ard Place, Howard University, Washington. 19th century. 

Residence of the Union General and the only one of the 
four original University buildings still standing. May 30, 
1974. 

HUGHES, CHARLES EVANS, HOUSE, 2223 R Street 
N.W., Washington. 1907, George Oakley Totten. 
Hughes was a leader in the Progressive movement, the 
holder of important offices under several Presidents, and a 
Justice of the Supreme Court. Resided here from 1930 to 
1948. November 28, 1972. 

LAFAYETTE SQUARE HISTORIC DISTRICT, includes 
those buildings fronting on H Street, Jackson Place, 
Madison Place, and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington. 
18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. 

Lafayette Park was designated as the President's Park when 
■Washington became the Capital in 1 791. Name was changed 
in 1824 to honor the visiting Marquis de Lafayette. Houses 
fronting the Park have been the residences of prominent 
'men, and nearby are the Decatur House, White House, and 
Sf. John's Church. August 29, 1970. 



27 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 1st Street and Independence 
Avenue S.E., Washington. 1886-1897, Smithmeyer and 
Pelz. 

Established in 1800 primarily to serve the Congress, the 
Library is now one of the world's largest, with a greatly 
expanded scope of service. December 21, 1965. 

MEMORIAL CONTINENTAL HALL, 17th Street, between 

C and D Streets N.W., Washington. 1902, Edward Pearse 

Casey. 

Site of the 1921 naval disarmament conference. Now the 

national headquarters for the Daughters of the American 

Revolution. November 28, 1972. 

NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE, P Street, within Fort Lesley 
J. McNair, Washington. 1907, McKim, Mead and White. 

Established to serve the Army in an advisory and educa- 
tional capacity. After 1946 the college was used as an 
inter service facility . November 28, 1972. 

OCTAGON HOUSE, 1799 New York Avenue N.W., Wash- 
ington. 1800, Dr. William Thorton. 

Federal townhouse, built by the architect who designed the 
U.S. Capitol. Occupied temporarily in 1814 by President 
James Madison after the burning of the White House. The 
Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812, was signed here. 
December 19, 1960. 

OLD NAVAL OBSERVATORY, 23rd and E Streets N.W., 
Washington. 1844. 

The Observatory made important contributions in the fields 
of oceanography and navigation. January 12, 1965. 

OLD PATENT OFFICE, F and G Streets between 7th and 
9th Streets N.W., Washington. 1840, William P. Elliot; 
1849-1851, Robert Mills; 1851-1867, Edward Clark. 
United States Patent Office maintained a library and a 
display of patent models here. Now houses the National 
Portrait Gallery and the National Collection of Fine Arts. 
January 12, 1965. 

PHILADELPHIA (GUNDELO), Smithsonian Institution, 
Museum of History and Technology, 14th Street and 
Constitution Avenue N.W., Washington. 
Only surviving gunboat built and manned by Americans 
during the Revolutionary War. Used in a battle on Lake 
Champlain in 1776. January 20, 1961. 

RED CROSS (AMERICAN NATIONAL) HEADQUAR- 
TERS, 17th and D Streets N.W., Washington. 1915-1917, 
Trowbridge and Livingston. 

Houses the administration of the Nation's official relief 
organization. Accepted in the United States about 1884, 
due largely to the efforts of Clara Barton. June 23, 1965. 

RENWICK GALLERY, northeast corner, 17th Street and! 



28 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



Pennsylvania Avenue N.W., Washington. 1859-1860, James 
Renwick. 

One of the earliest French Renaissance structures in the 
United States. Built for W. W. Corcoran, one of America's 
first great art patrons, to house his collection. November 
11, 1971. 

RICHARDS, ZALMON, HOUSE, 1301 Corcoran Street 
N.W., Washington. Mid-1 9th century. 

Home of the founder and first president of the National 
Educational Association. Responsible for the passage in 
1867 of the bill establishing the Federal Office of Educa- 
tion. December 21, 1965. 

ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, 16th and H Streets N.W., Washing- 
ton. 1816, Benjamin H. Latrobe; 1883, James Renwick. 

Early 19th-century Federal architecture, known as the 
''Church of the Presidents." Pew 54 has traditionally been 
set aside for the President and his family since Madison's 
administration. December 19, 1960. 

SMITHSONIAN BUILDING, Jefferson Drive at 10th Street 
S.W., Washington. 1855, James Renwick. 

Original Smithsonian building, housing the Institution's 
administrative offices. The complex of buildings has one of 
the world's largest collections of scientific and historical 
books and artifacts. January 12, 1965. 

STATE, WAR, AND NAVY (EXECUTIVE OFFICE) 
BUILDING, southeast corner, Pennsylvania Avenue and 
17th Street N.W., Washington. 1871-1888. 
French Renaissance building constructed for the State, War, 
and Navy Departments. Elaborate gaslight chandeliers, 
carved mantels, and spiraling staircases decorate the inte- 
rior. November 11, 1971. 

TUDOR PLACE, 1644 31st Street N.W., Washington, 
c. 1815, Dr. William Thornton. 

For many years one of the centers of Georgetown society. 
Guests at this early Federal house have included Robert E. 
Lee and the Marquis de Lafayette. December 19, 1960. 

UNITED STATES CAPITOL, Capitol Hill, Washington. 
1793-1802, Dr. William Thornton; 1803-1817, Benjamin 
Henry Latrobe; 1819-1829, Charles Bulfinch; 1836-1851, 
Robert Mills; 1851-1865, Thomas Ustick Walter. 
The Capitol has housed the Legislative Chambers of 
Congress since 1800, and the Supreme Court sat here from 
1800 until 1935. President Washington laid the cornerstone 
in 1 793 and Presidential inaugurations are traditionally held 
here. December 19, 1960. 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, 1500 Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue N.W., Washington. 1836, Robert Mills; 1851, 
Thomas U. Walter; 1852, Ammi B. Young; 1862, Isaiah 
Rogers; 1865, Alfred B. Mullett. 



29 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA / FLORIDA 

Built in the Greek Revival style, this building was a strong 
influence on the architecture of the period. November 11, 
1971. 

U.S. SOLDIERS' HOME, Rock Creek Church Road N.W., 

Washington. 

Four pre-Civil War structures formed the core of the early 

Soldiers' Home, established in 1851. First home for 

disabled or retired Regular Army soldiers who had served in 

peacetime. November 7, 1973. 

VOLTA BUREAU, 1537 35th Street N.W., Washington. 
1893. 

In 1887 Alexander Graham Bell founded the Volta Bureau 
as an instrument "for the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge relating to the Deaf. " The Bureau merged with 
the American Association for the Promotion of the 
Teaching of Speech to the Deaf in 1908. The Volta Bureau 
continues its work in aiding the deaf. May 31, 1973. 

WASHINGTON AQUEDUCT, MacArthur Boulevard, Wash- 
ington. 1853-1863, Montgomery C. Meigs. 
The Aqueduct's 12-mile underground masonry conduit is 
still in use. Its construction marked the entry of the Army 
Corps of Engineers into public works projects. November 7, 
1973. 

WILSON, WOODROW, HOUSE, 2340 S Street N.W., 
Washington. 1915, Waddy B. Wood. 

Wilson spent his last years here as a semi-invalid, weakened 
by his fight for the League of Nations. Contains memora- 
bilia associated with the lives of the Wilsons. July 19, 1964. 



Florida 



BETHUNE, MARY MCLEOD, HOME, campus of Bethune- 
Cookman College, Daytona Beach, Volusia County, 
c. 1920. 

Two-story framehouse belonging to the black activist and 
educator, on the campus of the school she established in 
1904. The college has made important contributions to 
black education in the South. December 2, 1974. 

CATHEDRAL OF ST. AUGUSTINE, Cathedral Street 
between Charlotte and St. George Streets, St. Augustine, 
St. Johns County. 1797; restored 1887-1888, James 
Renwick. 

St. Augustine Parish, established in 1594, is the oldest in 
the United States. The Cathedral is largely a restoration of 
an 18th-century church. April 15, 1970. 

DADE BATTLEFIELD, Dade Battlefield Memorial State 



30 



FLORIDA 

Park, Sumter County. 19th century. 

Site of Chief Osceola's victory in the Second Seminole War 
(1835-1842), brought on by President Jackson's Indian 
removal policy. November 7, 1973. 

FORT SAN MARCOS DE APALACHE, 18 miles south of 
Tallahassee on U.S. 319 and Fla. 363, St. Marks, Wakulla 
County. 1660. 

Capture of the Fort by Andrew Jackson in 1818 was 
instrumental in the American acquisition of Florida in 
1819. November 13, 1966. 

FORT WALTON MOUND, U.S. 98, Fort Walton Beach, 
Okaloosa County. Late prehistoric. 

A type site for the Indian culture present along the 
northwest Florida coast at the time of De Soto's explora- 
tion of Florida. July 19, 1964. 

FORT ZACHARY TAYLOR, U.S. Naval Station, Key West, 
Monroe County. 1844-1846. 

The Fort was a strong Union outpost in the South 
throughout the Civil War and provided a defense for the 
Key West naval station during the Spanish-American War. 
May 31, 1973. 

GONZALEZ-ALVAREZ HOUSE (OLDEST HOUSE), 14 

St. Francis Street, St. Augustine, St. Johns County, c. 1723, 

1775-1786,1790. 

A "St. Augustine "-style townhouse, adapted to Florida's 

unique climatic conditions. The original one-story house 

had coquina (broken coral and shells) walls and floors of 

tabby (oyster shells mixed with lime). April 15, 1970. 

HEMINGWAY, ERNEST, HOUSE, 907 Whitehead Street, 
Key West, Monroe County. 1931-1940. 

Winner of both the Pulitzer and Nobel Prizes for literature, 
Hemingway lived in this large, two-story Spanish-style 
house from 1931 to 1940. November 24, 1968. 

LLAMBIAS HOUSE (FERNANDEZ-LLAMBIAS HOUSE), 

31 St. Francis Street, St. Augustine, St. Johns County. 
Late 18th century. 

An example of a dwelling combining English and Spanish 
architectural details. April 15, 1970. 

OKEECHOBEE BATTLEFIELD, 4 miles southeast of 
Okeechobee on U.S. 441, Okeechobee County. 1837. 
Site of Zachary Taylor's decisive victory, the turning point 
I in the Second Seminole War. July 4, 1961. 

PELICAN ISLAND NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, east 
of Sebastian in the Indian River, Indian River County. 
1903. 

First Federal sanctuary for the protection of wildlife, 
established by President Theodore Roosevelt. A rookery for 
brown pelicans and other waterfowl. May 23, 1963. 



31 



FLORIDA / GEORGIA 

PLAZA FERDINAND VII, Palafox Street between Govern- 
ment and Zaragossa Streets, Pensacola, Escambia County. 
1821. 

Site of the formal transfer of Florida from Spain to the 
United States in 1821. Andrew Jackson, as the Governor of 
the territory, officially proclaimed the establishment of the 
Florida Territory. October 9, 1960. 

SAFETY HARBOR SITE, Philippe Park, 1 mile northeast 
of Safety Harbor, Pinellas County. Late prehistoric. 

Site depicts a late prehistoric and early historic period, 
representing the Gulf Coast Timucua Indian culture at the 
time of European contact. July 19, 1964. 

ST. AUGUSTINE TOWN PLAN HISTORIC DISTRICT, 

roughly bounded on north by Castillo de San Marcos; on 
the south by St. Francis Barracks; on the west by Cordova 
Street, and including the Alcazar Hotel; and on the east by 
the Matanzas River, St. Augustine, St. Johns County. 
16th-19th centuries. 

Oldest continuously occupied European settlement in the 
continental United States, founded as a Spanish military 
base in 1565. Laid out around a central plaza, the present 
streets are all in the original town plan. April 15, 1970. 

SAN LUIS DE APALACHE, 2 miles west of Tallahassee on 
U.S. 90, Leon County. 1633, 1663. 

Administrative center for the Spanish Province of Apalache. 
Abandoned when Great Britain began the destruction of 
the Spanish Florida missions in 1 702. October 9, 1960. 



Georgia 



BELLEVUE (BENJAMIN HARVEY HILL HOUSE), 204 
Ben Hill Street, La Grange, Troup County. 1853-1855. 
Georgia statesman's home. The interior features immense 
hallways and noteworthy plaster cornices. November 7, 
1973. 

CALHOUN MINE, Dahlonega, Lumpkin County, 1828. 
Associated with the discovery of gold in Georgia and the 
subsequent gold rush, which drove the Cherokees from 
their land. February 17, 1974. 

CARMICHAEL HOUSE, 1183 Georgia Avenue, Macon, 

Bibb County. Late 1840's. 

A combination of Classical and Victorian design. Interior 

features a spiral staircase in a central tower. November 7, 

1973. 

CHIEFTAINS (MAJOR RIDGE HOUSE), 80 Chatillon 
Road, Rome, Floyd County, c. 1792, c. 1837. 
The original hand-hewn log cabin built by Major Ridge, a 
Cherokee chief, is incorporated into the present larger 



32 



GEORGIA 



house. Ridge operated a ferry and trading post and was the 
speaker of the Cherokee National Council. November 7, 
1973. 

COLLEGE HILL (WALTON-HARPER HOUSE), 2216 
Wrightsboro Road, Augusta vicinity, Richmond County. 
1795. 

Home of George Walton, a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence. Also served as Georgia's Governor, Chief 
Justice of the State Supreme Court, and U.S. Senator. 
November 11, 1971. 

COMMANDANT'S HOUSE (PRESIDENT'S HOME, 
AUGUSTA COLLEGE), 2500 Walton Way, Augusta, Rich- 
mond County. 19th-20th centuries. 

Stephen Vincent Benet, known for his poetry and short 
stories, began his writing career in this two-story Federal- 
style house after moving here in 1911. November 11, 1971. 

ETOWAH MOUNDS, 3 miles south of Cartersville on Ga. 
61, Bartow County, c. 1350. 

Important as an expression of the eastern expansion of 
Mississippian culture, the site is one of three prehistoric 
southern culture centers in the East. July 19, 1964. 

GOVERNOR'S MANSION, 120 South Clark Street, Mil- 
ledgeville, Baldwin County. 1840's. 

The mansion has round, square, rectangular, and octagonal 
rooms. Milledgeville was the State capital from 1804 to 
1868. November 7, 1973. 

HARRIS, JOEL CHANDLER, HOUSE, 1050 Gordon 
Street S.W., Atlanta, Fulton County. 1881-1908. 

Harris, author of the "Uncle Remus" tales, lived here from 
1881 until his death in 1908. The house, contains many 
original furnishings. December 19, 1962. 

HAY HOUSE, 934 Georgia Avenue, Macon, Bibb County. 
1855-1860, James B. Ayres. 

Italian Renaissance villa, a striking contrast to Georgia's 
neo-classical antebellum mansions. Interior features include 
curved marble stairs and a 50-foot ballroom. November 7, 
1973. 

KOLOMOKI MOUNDS, 8 miles north of Blakely on U.S. 
27, Kolomoki Mounds State Park, Early County, c. 1400- 
1600. 

Excavations have revealed details of burial practices at this 
type site for the Kolomoki culture. Contains the largest 
mound group in the Gulf Coast area. July 19, 1964. 

LAPHAM-PATTERSON HOUSE, 626 North Dawson 
Street, Thomasville, Thomas County. 1880's. 

Three-story Victorian mansion, built as a resort home by a 
Chicago businessman. Includes such innovations as stained 
glass and sliding doors. November 7, 1973. 



33 



GEORGIA 

LOW, JULIETTE GORDON, BIRTHPLACE, 10 Ogle- 
thorpe Avenue, Savannah, Chatham County. 1818-1821, 
William Jay. 

Low established the Girl Scout movement in this country, 
holding the first meeting in her carriage house. Became the 
first president of the Girl Scouts after its incorporation in 
1915. June 23, 1965. 

NEW ECHOTA, Gordon, Calhoun County. 1825. 

First "national" capital of the Cherokees, established in 
1825. Contains first Cherokee newspaper shop. November 
7, 1973. 

OCTAGON HOUSE, 527 1st Avenue, Columbus, Muscogee 
County. 1829-1830, 1863. 

Inspired by a building fad which developed following 
publication of a book on octagon design. November 7, 
1973. 

ROSS, JOHN, HOUSE, Lake Avenue and Spring Streets, 
Rossville. 

Two-story square-timbered log house, home of the Chero- 
kees' most prominent chief and the hero of the 1812 Creek 
War. November 7, 1973. 

ST. CATHERINE'S ISLAND, 10 miles off the Georgia 
coast between St. Catherine's Sound and Sapelo Sound, 
South Newport vicinity, Liberty County. 16th-20th centu- 
ries. 

Important Spanish mission center from 1566 to 1684. 
Button Gwinnett, Delegate to the Continental Congress and 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, purchased the 
island in 1765 and lived here. December 16, 1969. 

SAVANNAH HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by E. Broad, 
Gwinnett, W. Broad Streets and the Savannah River, 
Savannah, Chatham County. 1732. 

The district retains much of James Oglethorpe's original 
city plan and includes many buildings of architectural 
merit. November 13, 1966. 

SCARBROUGH, WILLIAM, HOUSE, 41 W. Broad Street, 
Savannah, Chatham County. 1818-1819, William Jay; 
c. 1835-1845 (remodeled); 1969 (restored). 
Site of a reception for President Monroe in 1819. Built for 
a prosperous merchant in the English Regency style. 
November 7, 1973. 

STALLINGS ISLAND, 8 miles northwest of Augusta in the 
Savannah River, Columbia County. Prior to 1700 B.C. 
One of the most important shell mound sites in the 
Southeast, giving information on Indians who lived here 
prior to the pottery-makers. January 20, 1961. 

STATE CAPITOL, Capitol Square, Atlanta, Fulton County. 
1889, Edbrooke and Burnham. 



34 



GEORGIA / HAWAII 

This monumental domed and columned structure expressed 
the new nationalism of the city after the Civil War. 
November 7, 1973. 

STONE HALL (FAIRCHILD HALL), ATLANTA UNI 
VERSITY, Atlanta, Fulton County. 1882. 
Stone Hall is most closely associated with the history of the 
University, founded in 1866 by the American Missionary 
Association to provide education for freed Negroes. Noted 
writer B. DuBois taught here. December 2, 1974. 

TOOMBS, ROBERT, HOUSE, E. Robert Toombs Ave- 
nue, Washington, Wilkes County. 1797, c. 1835, c. 1840, 
c.1870. 

Toombs served in the U.S. Congress and became Secretary 
of State for the Confederacy and a general in the Confed- 
erate Army. House added to by original owners and also 
Toombs. November 7, 1973. 

TRAVELER'S REST, 6 miles east of Toccoa on U.S. 123, 
Stephens County. 1764. 

Erected by Major Jesse Walton, Revolutionary soldier and 
Indian fighter. Example of an early tavern and inn in a rural 
frontier setting. January 29, 1964. 

TUPPER-BARNETT HOUSE, 101 W. Robert Toombs 
Avenue, Washington, Wilkes County, c. 1832-1860. 
An example of the early 19th-century trend to convert 
Federal period homes into neo-classical mansions by adding 
colonnades. November 7, 1973. 



Hawaii 



COOK LANDING SITE, 2 miles southwest of Hawaii 50, 
Waimea, Island of Kauai, Kauai County. 1778. 
Captain James Cook, English explorer, was the first 
European to land on the Islands. December 29, 1962. 

HOKUKANO-UALAPUE COMPLEX, along Hawaii 45, 
Ualapue vicinity, Island of Molokai, Maui County. Date 
unknown. 

Complex includes six temples and two fishponds, forming 
an important archeological exhibit. December 29, 1962. 

HONOKOHAU SETTLEMENT, Honokohau Bay, just 
north of Kailua-Kona, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii County. 
Prehistoric-1920. 

Site includes ancient house sites, temples, fishponds, a 
toboggan slide, tombs, and scattered petroglyphs. Decem- 
ber 29, 1962. 

HUILUA FISHPOND, on Kahana Bay, 13 miles north of 
Kaneohe on Hawaii 83 adjacent to Kahana Bay State Park, 



35 



HAWAII 

Island of Oahu, Honolulu County. Date unknown. 

One of the last surviving ponds on the Island, built by the 
Menehunes for hatching and keeping fish. December 29, 
1962. 

IOLANI PALACE, 364 S. King Street, Honolulu, Island of 
Oahu, Honolulu County. 1879-1882. 

Residence of the last two rulers of the Hawaiian Kingdom 
and scene of the transfer of sovereignty to the United 
States in 1898. Seat of government for the State of Hawaii. 
December 29, 1962. 

KAMAKAHONU, On the northwest edge of Kailua Bay, 
north and west of Kailua wharf, Kailua-Kona, Island of 
Hawaii, Hawaii County. 1812. 

Residential compound of King Kamehameha who with his 
son paved the way for the influential role played by Ameri- 
can Protestant missionaries after 1820. December 29, 1962. 

KAUNOLU VILLAGE SITE, on Kaunolu Bay, on the 
southwest cape of the Island of Lanai, Lanai city vicinity, 
Maui County. Date unknown. 

Well-preserved ruins of a once-vigorous fishing community , 
deserted in 1880. Nearly all phases of Hawaiian culture are 
represented here. December 29, 1962. 

KAWAIAHAO CHURCH AND MISSION HOUSES, 957 

Punchbowl Street; 553 S. King Street, Honolulu, Island of 
Oahu, Honolulu County. 1839-1842, Hitham Bingham. 
Symbolizes the work of the Protestant missionaries in 
revolutionizing Hawaiian culture and religion. Church is 
typical New England style neo-classical design. December 
29,1962. 

KEAUHOU HOLUA SLIDE, east of Hawaii 18, Keauhou, 
Island of Hawaii, Hawaii County. Date unknown. 

Largest and best-preserved holua (toboggan) slide, used in 
an extremely dangerous pastime restricted to chiefs. Served 
as the "Olympic Games" holua. December 29, 1962. 

LAHAINA HISTORIC DISTRICT, west side of Maui on 
Hawaii 30, Lahaina, Island of Maui, Maui County. Mid-19th 
century. 

Former capital of Maui, center of missionary activities. 
Preserves the atmosphere of a mid-1 9th century Hawaiian 
seaport. December 29, 1962. 

LOALOA HEIAU, southeast coast of Maui on Hawaii 31, 
about 0.25 mile north of Kaupo, Island of Maui, Maui 
County. 16th century. 

A large platform heiau (temple) site, once the center of a 
culture complex around Kaupo. December 29, 1962. 

MAUNA KEA ADZ QUARRY, 25 miles northwest of Hilo 
via mountain trail, Hilo vicinity, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 
County. Prehistoric. 



36 



HAWAII 

Largest primitive quarry in the world, used by prehistoric 
Hawaiians to obtain basalt for stone implements. December 
29, 1962. 

MOOKINI HEIAU, northern tip of Hawaii, 1 mile west of 
Upolu Point Airport, Hawi vicinity, Island of Hawaii, 
Hawaii County. 1000. 

Sacrificial temple with an open stone-paved court. Measures 
250 by 130 feet and is enclosed by 20-foot walls. December 
29, 1962. 

OLD SUGAR MILL OF KOLOA, Koloa, Island of Kauai, 
Kauai County. 1841-1842. 

Mill was part of the first commercially successful sugar 
plantation in the Islands, started by a group of New 
Englanders in 1835. December 29, 1962. 

PIILANIHALE HEIAU, 4 miles north of Hana, at the 
mouth of Honomaele Gulch near Kalahu Point, Island of 
Maui, Maui County. 16th century. 

Largest temple in the Islands. Believed to have been built 
by Piilani, a Maui ruling chief. January 29, 1964. 

PUU O MAHUKA HEIAU, 4 miles northeast of Haleiwa on 
Hawaii 83, overlooking Waimea Bay, Island of Oahu, 
Honolulu County. Date unknown. 

Oahu's greatest priests came from this district. The low- 
walled court, platform-type temple is the largest on Oahu. 
December 29, 1962. 

RUSSIAN FORT, on Hawaii 50, 200 yards southwest of 
the bridge over the Waimea River, Island of Kauai, Kauai 
County. 1816-1817. 

Ruins of the Fort commemorate the period of international 
rivalry for influence in the Islands. Russian and Aleutian 
settlers expelled in 181 7. December 29, 1962. 

SOUTH POINT COMPLEX, South Cape, southern tip of 
Hawaii, Kau District, Naalehu vicinity, Island of Hawaii, 
Hawaii County. 

These sites provide the longest and most complete record of 
human occupation, 124 A.D. to the present, on the Islands. 
December 29, 1962. 

U.S. NAVAL BASE, PEARL HARBOR, 3 miles south of 
Pearl City on Hawaii 73, Island of Oahu, Honolulu County. 
1911. 

The Base has been important to American naval power in 
the Pacific. Pearl Harbor attack by Japan in 1941 precipi- 
tated the United States into World War II. January 29, 
1964. 

WAILUA COMPLEX OF HEIAUS, east coast of Kauai at 
the mouth of the Wailua River, Lihue District, Wailua 
vicinity, Island of Kauai, Kauai County. Prehistoric. 

Consists of a city of refuge, temples, royal birthstones, and 



37 



HAWAII / IDAHO 



a sacrificial rock. An important archeological complex, 
covering a long period in Hawaiian prehistory. December 
29, 1962. 



Idaho 



ASSAY OFFICE, 210 Main Street, Boise, Ada County. 
1870-1871, Alfred B. Mullett. 

Symbolizes the importance of mining in the development 
of the Pacific Northwest. One of the most significant public 
buildings remaining from Idaho's Territorial days. May 30, 
1961. 

CATALDO MISSION, off U.S. 10, Cataldo, Kootenai 
County. 1848-1853. 

Oldest building in Idaho. Used by Jesuit missionaries from 
1846 to 1877, when they were converting the Indians. July 
4, 1961. 

CITY OF ROCKS, City of Rocks State Park, Almo vicinity, 
Cassia County. 1842-1875. 

One of the natural landmarks of the California Trail, named 
for its rock formations. Thousands of emigrants camped 
here, leaving still-visible wagon train tracks. July 19, 1964. 

EXPERIMENTAL BREEDER REACTOR NO. 1, National 
Reactor Testing Station, Arco vicinity, Butte County. 
1950. 

The reactor produced the first usable amounts of electricity 
created by nuclear means and achieving a self-sustaining 
chain reaction. December 21, 1965. 

FORT HALL, 11 miles west of town of Fort Hall, Fort 
Hall Indian Reservation, Bannock County. 1834. 
Built at the division of the Oregon and California Trails, the 
Fort was important to fur traders, those migrating overland, 
and the gold miners. January 20, 1961. 

LEMHI PASS, 12 miles east of Tendoy off Idaho 28, 
Lemhi County. 1805. 

The Pass (elevation 8000 feet) was the point where the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition first cross the Continental 
Divide. October 9, 1960. 

LOLO TRAIL, Clearwater and Idaho Counties, Idaho, and 
Missoula County, Montana. Extends 155-165 miles in a 
northeast-southwest direction. The eastern terminus is the 
confluence of Lolo Creek with the Bitterroot River near the 
village of Lolo, Montana; the western terminus is Weippe 
Prairie, in Idaho. 

Lolo Trail is the 150-165 miles of the Nez Perce Indian 
Buffalo Trail that was followed by Lewis and Clark in their 
1805 and 1806 crossings of the Bitterroot Mountains. 
October 9, 1960. 



38 



IDAHO / ILLINOIS 



WEIPPE PRAIRIE, south of Weippe and Idaho 11, Clear- 
water County. 1805. 

Site of the first encounter of members of the Lewis and 
Clark Expedition with Nez Perce Indians. A friendly 
relationship was established which continued for over 70 
years. May 23, 1966. 



Illinois 



CAHOKIA MOUNDS, 7850 Collinsville Road, Cahokia 
Mounds State Park, Collinsville vicinity, St. Clair County. 
600-1400. 

Largest prehistoric Indian site in the United States and the 
fountainhead of Mississippian culture. July 19, 1964. 

CHURCH OF THE HOLY FAMILY, off 111. 3, Cahokia, St. 
Clair County. 1786-1799. 

Catholic priests founded a mission here in 1699. Present 
structure, typical of French Colonial upright log construc- 
tion, served as a parish church until 1891. April 15, 1970. 

COONLEY, AVERY, HOUSE, 300 Scottswood Road and 
281 Bloomingbank Road, Riverside, Cook County. 1907- 
1909, Frank Lloyd Wright. 

A U-shaped, two-story residence in which Wright included 
such innovations as flowing interior spaces, a raised 
basement, and low-pitched overhanging roofs. December 
30, 1970. 

DEERE, JOHN, HOME AND SHOP, R.R. #3, Grand 
Detour, Dixon Ogle County. 1836. 

Deere invented and manufactured a steel plow that made 
possible intensive cultivation of vast areas of rich land in 
the Old Northwest. 

EADS BRIDGE, spanning the Mississippi River from East 

St. Louis, St. Clair County, Illinois to St. Louis, Missouri. 

1874,JamesB.Eads. 

First American bridge for which steel was employed in the 

principal members. Arches were erected by the innovative 

cantilever method. January 29, 1964. 

FORT DE CHARTRES, terminus of 111. 155 west of Prairie 

du Rocher, Fort Chartres State Park, Randolph County. 

1753-1758. 

Destroyed by the British in 1772, the Fort was the center 

of French civil and military government in the Illinois area 

in the 18th century. October 9, 1960. 

GRANT, ULYSSES S., HOME, 511 Bouthillier Street, 
Galena, Jo Daviess County. 1857. 

Galena's residents presented this house to the victorious 
Union commander. Grant lived here until he became 
Secretary of War in 1867 and returned after his term as 
President. December 19, 1960. 



39 



ILLINOIS 

HULL HOUSE, 800 S. Halsted Street, Chicago, Cook 
County. 1856. 

Jane Addams moved into Hull House in 1889, working here 
to provide a wide variety of social services to Chicago's 
poor. Settlement house program gained international recog- 
nition. June 23, 1965. 

ILLINOIS AND MICHIGAN CANAL (LOCKS AND TOW- 
PATH), 7 miles southwest of Joliet on U.S. 6, Channahon 
State Park, Will County. 1848. 

Linking Chicago to the Mississippi River, the Canal com- 
pleted a continuous waterway to New York City and made 
Chicago a leading grain market and meatpacking center. 
January 29, 1964. 

KINCAID SITE, southeast of Brookport on the Ohio River, 
Massac and Pope Counties, c. 1200-1300. 

One of the major temple mound sites in southern Illinois. 
Probably used as a trade station along the Ohio River. July 
19, 1964. 

LINCOLN TOMB, Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, San- 
gamon County. 1874. 

Final resting place of Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth President 
of the United States, his wife, and three of their four sons. 
December 19, 1960. 

LINDSAY, VACHEL, HOUSE, 603 S. 5th Street, Spring- 
field, Sangamon County. 1848. 

Lindsay, a Midwestern poet, lived here most of his life. The 
house contains many of his drawings, writings, and posses- 
sions. November 11, 1971. 

MENARD, PIERRE, HOUSE, Fort Kaskaskia State Park, 
Ellis Grove vicinity, Randolph County, c. 1802. 

Menard was a trader and active in State politics. The stone 
basement of his French Colonial raised cottage was used to 
store his trading goods. April 15, 1970. 

MODOC ROCKSHELTER, 2 miles north of Modoc, Ran- 
dolph County, c. 8000 B.C. to 1500 A.D. 

Contains stratified deposits giving evidence of four periods 
of Archaic Indian occupation and one later period of 
prehistoric Indian life. January 20, 1961. 

MORROW PLOTS, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, Gregory 
Drive at Matthews Avenue, Urbana, Champaign County. 
1876. 

Site of the first soil experiment plots established by a 
college in the United States. Provides data on the effects of 
crop rotation and fertilization. May 23, 1968. 

NAUVOO HISTORIC DISTRICT, Nauvoo, Hancock 
County, c. 1840. 

A Mormon settlement flourished here until 1845, when the 
hostility of State authorities forced the community to 



40 



ILLINOIS 

move westward to Utah, under the leadership of Brigham 
Young. A number of Mormon buildings from the period 
remain. January 20, 1961. 

OLD KASKASKIA VILLAGE, 4 miles west of Ottawa on 
U.S. 6, La Salle County. 17th century. 

Best-documented historic Indian site in the Illinois River 
Valley. First recorded in 1673 by Joliet and Marquette. 
July 19, 1964. 

OLD MAIN, KNOX COLLEGE, Knox College campus, 
Galesburg, Knox County. 1856-1857, Charles Ulricson. 
Scene in 1858 of one of the Lincoln-Douglas debates, 
which brought Lincoln national prominence. July 4, 1961. 

OLD STATE CAPITOL, bounded by 5th, 6th, Adams, and 
Washington Streets, Springfield, Sangamon County. 1837, 
John F. Rague. 

Lincoln was a member of the legislature which met here 
from 1840-1841. Made his noted "House Divided" speech 
here in 1858, while accepting the Republican nomination 
for the U.S. Senate. July 4, 1961. 

PULLMAN HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by 103rd 
Street, railroad tracks, 115th Street, and Cottage Grove 
Avenue, Chicago, Cook County. 1880. 

Pullman, industrialist and inventor of the sleeping car, built 
a self-contained company town here. By 1890 it was 
occupied by 12,000 people, living in brick rowhouses. 
Hundreds of original dwellings remain. December 30, 1970. 

RIVERSIDE HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by 26th 
Street, Harlem Avenue, Ogden Avenue, the Des Plaines 
River, and Forbes Road, on the west, Riverside, Cook 
County. 1869, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. 

Designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, 
Riverside was the first planned model community in the 
Nation, arranged so that open spaces and parkland would 
be part of urban living. August 29, 1 970. 

ROBIE, FREDERICK C, HOUSE, 5757 S. Woodlawn 

Avenue, Chicago, Cook County. 1907-1909, Frank Lloyd 

Wright. 

The Robie House has won international acclaim as a 

monumental achievement in modern architecture. Designed 

by Wright in his Prairie style, utilizing an open plan. 

November 27,1963. 

ROOM 405, GEORGE HERBERT JONES LABORA- 
TORY, THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, S. Ellis Avenue 
between E. 57th and 58th Streets, Chicago, Cook County. 
1942. 

Man-made element plutonium was isolated here. First 
synthetically produced isotope of any element seen by 
man. May 28,1967. 



41 



ILLINOIS / INDIANA 



SITE OF FIRST SELF-SUSTAINING NUCLEAR REAC- 
TION, S. Ellis Avenue between E. 56th and 57th Streets, 
Chicago, Cook County. 1942. 

Under the control of physicist Enrico Fermi the world's 
first nuclear chain reactor was activated here, continuing to 
operate for 28 minutes. February 18, 1965. 

STARVED ROCK, 6 miles from Ottawa on 111. 71, Starved 
Rock State Park, La Salle County. 

First major center of French influence in the Illinois 
country. Fort St. Louis, built here in 1683, was abandoned 
in 1691 because of Indian hostility. October 9, 1960. 

TAFT, LORADO, MIDWAY STUDIOS, 6016 S. Ingleside 
Avenue, Chicago, Cook County. Early 20th century. 

Taft was a sculptor of realistic works of monumental scale 
and an art teacher and author. His studios are now part of 
the University of Chicago. December 21, 1965. 

UNITY TEMPLE, 875 Lake Street, Oak Park, Cook 
County. 1906, Frank Lloyd Wright. 

Wright designed the Temple with a rooftop skylight, rather 
than a steeple. Constructed of poured concrete with stark 
and unomamented interior walls. December 30, 1970. 

WAYSIDE, THE (HENRY DEMAREST LLOYD HOME), 

830 Sheridan Road, Winnetka, Cook County. 1878. 
A critic of America's industrial monopoly during the 
188 0's, Lloyd wrote for the "Chicago Tribune" and was the 
author of Wealth Against Commonwealth," published in 
1894. November 13, 1966. 

WELLS-BARNETT, IDA B., HOUSE, 3624 South Martin 
Luther King Drive, Chicago, Cook County, c. 1889-1890. 
An 1890's civil rights advocate and a crusader for the rights 
of black women, Ida Wells-Barnett carried on her crusades 
in the pages of her newspaper, the "Memphis Free Speech. " 
May 30, 1974. 

WILLARD, FRANCES, HOUSE, 1730 Chicago Avenue, 
Evanston, Cook County. 1865. 

Willard made the temperance movement nationally signifi- 
cant and became president of the Women's Christian 
Temperance Union in 1879. Her house is now the head- 
quarters of that organization. June 23, 1965. 



Indiana 



ANGEL MOUNDS, 8 miles southeast of Evansville, Angel 
Mounds State Memorial, Vanderburgh County. 1400-1600. 
Covering a 100-acre area, the site is the northeasternmost 
extension of the Mississippian culture, which flourished in 
the period A. D. 1000-1600. January 29, 1964. 



42 



INDIANA / IOWA 



COFFIN, LEVI, HOUSE, 115 N. Main Street, Fountain 
City, Wayne County, 1827. 

Called the "president" of the Underground Railroad for 
runaway slaves, Coffin moved to Indiana in 1826, began a 
business, and opened his house as a depot for slaves. He 
worked to assist the freedmen after' emancipation in 1863. 
June 23, 1965. 

DEBS, EUGENE V., HOME, 451 N. 8th Street, Terre 
Haute, Vigo County. 1885. 

Debs was the founder of industrial unionism in the United 
States and the Socialist Party's Presidential candidate in the 
Presidential elections, 1900-1920 except for 19 16. Novem- 
ber 13, 1966. 

GROUSELAND (WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, HOME), 
3 W. Scott Street, Vincennes, Knox County. 1803-1804. 

Harrison, President of the United States for only a month 
in 1841, lived here as Territorial Govenor of Indiana, from 
1804-1812. A strong advocate of white settlement on 
Indian lands, he met the Indian leader Tecumseh here. 
December 19, 1960. 

HARRISON, BENJAMIN, HOME, 1204 N. Delaware 
Street, Indianapolis, Marion County. 1874-1875. 
Harrison, the twenty -third President, accepted the Republi- 
can Party's nomination for the Presidency in this house on 
July 4, 1888. January 29, 1964. 

NEW HARMONY HISTORIC DISTRICT, Main Street 
between Granary and Church Streets, New Harmony, Posey 
County. 1825. 

The site of both religiously and secularly inspired Utopian 
communities, founded by the Rappites in 1815 and 
purchased by Robert Owen in 1825. About 35 of the 
original 180 Rappite buildings remain. June 23, 1965. 

RILEY, JAMES WHITCOMB, HOUSE, 528 Lockerbie 
Street, Indianapolis, Marion County, c. 1850. 

Riley, the "Hoosier poet," wrote in the American vernacu- 
lar on homespun subjects. His Victorian residence contains 
memorabilia of his life and career. December 29, 1962. 

TIPPECANOE BATTLEFIELD, 7 miles northeast of Lafay- 
ette on Ind. 225, Tippecanoe vicinity. 1811. 

William Henry Harrison's victory here destroyed Chief 
Tecumseh's plans for a confederation of Indian tribes to 
block westward expansion. October 9, 1960. 



Iowa 



AMANA VILLAGES, Middle Amana, northeastern Iowa 
County. 1855. 

Established by the most durable of the 19th-century 



43 



IOWA 



Utopian societies, the Amana Society, the Villages contain 
buildings from the 1850's, 1860's, and 1870's. A number of 
the shops and factories are still in use. June 23, 1965. 

BLOOD RUN SITE, south of Sioux Falls at the junction of 
Blood Run Creek and the Big Sioux River, Lyon County, 
c. 1700-1750. 

Contains the remains of an Indian village and numerous 
conical mounds. Occupied about 1700 to 1750, by the 
Oneota people. August 29, 1970. 

DODGE, GRENVILLE M., HOUSE, 605 S. 3rd Street, 
Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie County. 1869. 
Dodge supervised the completion in 1869 of the Union 
Pacific, the Nation's first transcontinental railroad. His 
Victorian mansion was considered one of the finest 
residences in Iowa at the time. November 5, 1961. 



FARM HOUSE, THE (KNAPP-WILSON HOUSE), Iowa 
State University campus, Ames, Story County. 1861. 

Served as a residence for Seaman A. Knapp, noted 
agriculturist and teacher, and James Wilson, Secretary of 
Agriculture from 1897-1913. July 19, 1964. 

FORT DES MOINES PROVISIONAL ARMY OFFICER 
TRAINING SCHOOL, Des Moines, Polk County. 1917. 
Used as the first black officers' training camp in 1917. 
Black units led by men trained here were assembled in 
France as the Ninety-Second Division. May 30, 1974. 

INDIAN VILLAGE SITE (WITTROCK AREA), 3 miles 

east of Sutherland, O'Brien County. 1000-1500. 

A small Mill Creek Indian culture village, unique because it 

has been little disturbed since its occupation. July 19, 

1964. 

PHIPPS SITE, 3 miles north of Cherokee, Cherokee 
County, c. 1000. 

Type site of the Mill Creek Indian culture. Represents late 
Woodland-Mississippian people who were developing Plains 
agricultural patterns. July 19, 1964. 

SERGEANT FLOYD MONUMENT, Glenn Avenue and 

Lewis Road, Sioux City, Woodbury County. 1804. 

A 100-foot obelisk marks the gravesite of the only member 

of the Lewis and Clark Expedition to lose his life. June 30, 

1960. 

TOOLESBORO MOUND GROUP, north of Toolesboro, 
Louisa County. Date unknown. 

Best-preserved Hopewell site in Iowa, representing an 
extension of the "classic" Hopewellian mortuary practices 
of the Illinois River Valley. May 23, 1966. 



44 



Kansas 



COUNCIL GROVE HISTORIC DISTRICT, Council Grove, 
Morris County. 1858. 

Important way-point on the Santa Fe Trail. Named on the 
occasion of a treaty negotiation with the Osage Indians in 
1825. May 23, 1963. 

EL CUARTELEJO, 12 miles north of Scott City, Scott 
County State Park, Scott County. 

Pueblo ruin attributed to a group of Picuris Indians who 
left the Southwest because of friction with the Spanish. 
July 19, 1964. 

FORT LEAVENWORTH, Leavenworth, Leavenworth 
County. 1827. 

Established to protect caravans on the Santa Fe Trail, the 
Fort played a major role in several wars and became the 
temporary capitol of the new Territory of Kansas in 1854. 
December 19, 1960. 

FORT SCOTT, Fort Scott, Bourbon County, 1842. 

Built to preserve peace among the Indian tribes in the 
territory. Scene of bloodshed between pro- and anti-slavery 
factions prior to the Civil War. July 19, 1964. 

HASKELL INSTITUTE, Lawrence, Douglas County. 1884. 

One of the few surviving non-reservation schools established 
in the late 19th century and a leading institution of Indian 
education since 1884. July 4, 1961. 

HOLLENBERG (COTTONWOOD) PONY EXPRESS STA- 
TION, 1.5 miles east of Hanover on a secondary road, 
Washington County. 1857. 

Only surviving unmoved and unaltered Pony Express 
station. Served as a relay station for both the Overland Mail 
and the Pony Express. November 5, 1961. 

LECOMPTON CONSTITUTION HALL, Elmore Street be- 
tween Woodson and 3rd Streets, Lecompton, Douglas 
County. 

Meeting place of the second Territorial legislature (1857), 
which drew up the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution. 
May 30, 1974. 

MARAIS DES CYGNES MASSACRE SITE, 5 miles north- 
east of Trading Post, Linn County. 1858. 
Site of mob violence involving pro- and anti-slavery factions 
in the pre-Civil War struggle for control of the Kansas 
Territory. May 30, 1974. 

MEDICINE LODGE PEACE TREATY SITE, just south and 
east of Medicine Lodge, Barber County. 1867. 



45 



KANSAS / KENTUCKY 

Under the Treaty signed here, Plains Indians were to give up 
their nomadic lifestyle and relinquish claims to ancestral 
lands in return for Government economic and educational 
help. August 4, 1969. 

SANTA FE TRAIL REMAINS, 9 miles west of Dodge City 
on U.S. 50, Ford County. 1820-1850. 

Longest continuous stretch of clearly defined Trail rut 
remains in Kansas. Forms a two-mile arc, 300 to 400 feet 
wide in places. May 23, 1963. 

SHAWNEE MISSION, 53rd Street at Mission Road, Fair- 
way, Johnson County. 1839-1845. 

First Territorial legislature met here in 1855, and the 
Mission was an important Indian school until 1862. May 
23, 1968. 

TOBIAS-THOMPSON COMPLEX, 4 miles southeast of 
Geneseo, Rice County. 16th century. 

Site of a Wichita Indian village which shows evidence of 
early contact with Europeans. July 19, 1964. 

WAGON BED SPRINGS, 12 miles south of Ulysses on U.S. 
270, Grant County, c. 1820-1850. 

Served as an oasis on the dry 60-mile stretch of the 
Cimarron Cutoff of the Santa Fe Trail. Ruts of the Trail are 
still evident. December 19, 1960. 

WHITEFORD (PRICE) SITE, 3 miles east of Salina, Salina 
County. Prehistoric. 

Prehistoric cemetery containing skeletons of the Smoky 
Hill Indian culture. Provides a record of the early Central 
Plains Village period in Kansas. July 19, 1 964. 



Kentucky 



ASHLAND (HENRY CLAY HOME), 2 miles southeast of 
Lexington on Richmond Road, Fayette County. 1806, 
Benjamin H. Latrobe; 1857, Major Thomas Lewinski. 

Residence of a distinguished pre-Civil War political leader 
and statesman. Served as a U.S. Senator, Speaker of the 
House, and Secretary of State. December 19, 1960. 

BEARD, DANIEL CARTER, BOYHOOD HOME, 322 E. 

3rd Street, Covington, Kenton County, c. 1850. 
Beard was one of the key figures in the movement that led 
to the founding of the Boy Scouts of America in 1910. 
June 23, 1965. 

INDIAN KNOLL, located on Green River about 0.5 miles 
upstream from Paradise, Ohio County. Before 3,000 B.C. 

One of the largest and most fully documented of the 
Archaic shell heap sites in Eastern U.S. Excavations 
provided vital information on life of Archaic Indian 
population. September 23, 1964. 



46 



KENTUCKY 



JACOBS HALL, KENTUCKY SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF, 

S. 3rd Street, Danville, Boyle County. 1857. 
Oldest surviving building on the campus of the first publicly 
supported institution for the education of the deaf in the 
United States. December 21, 1965. 

LIBERTY HALL, 218 Wilkinson Street, Frankfort, Frank- 
lin County. Late 19th century. 

The builder, John Brown, served as United States Senator 
after Kentucky attained statehood. Liberty Hall is pat- 
terned after the Federal-style architecture of Philadelphia. 
November 11, 1971. 

LINCOLN HALL, BEREA COLLEGE, Berea, Madison 
County. 1887. 

Berea is significant in the history of black education in that 
it was the first college established in the United States for 
the specific purpose of educating blacks and whites together. 
Lincoln Hall is closely associated with Berea's history. 
December 2, 1974. 

LOUISVILLE WATER COMPANY PUMPING STATION, 

Zorn Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County. 1858-1860, 
Theodore R. Scowden. 

Done in Classical Revival style, the Station was designed to 
blend architectural beauty with industrial efficiency. No- 
vember 11, 1971. 

Mcdowell, dr. ephraim, house, 125-127 s. 2nd 

Street, Danville, Boyle County, c. 1795. 
Recognized as the father of abdominal surgery, Dr. Mc- 
Dowell successfully performed a difficult abdominal opera- 
tion in 1809 in this house. January 12, 1965. 

OLD BANK OF LOUISVILLE, 320 W. Main Street, 
Louisville, Jefferson County. 1837, Gideon Shryock. 
A Greek Revival-style building which achieves a sense of 
monumentality because of its sloping sides and the architec- 
tural treatment of its facade. November 11, 1971. 

OLD MORRISON, TRANSYLVANIA COLLEGE, W. 3rd 

Street between Upper Street and Broadway, Lexington, 
Fayette County. 1833, Gideon Shryock. 

The college is one of the oldest institutions of higher 
learning west of the Appalachians. Old Morrison was among 
the first buildings constructed on the campus. December 
21, 1965. 

OLD STATE HOUSE, Broadway, bounded by Madison, 
Clinton and Lewis Streets, Frankfort, Franklin County. 
1827-1830, Gideon Shryock. 

Simple, two-story, temple-form stone building, the first 
major work of Gideon Shryock. Represents the introduc- 
tion of the Greek Revival style into Kentucky. November 
11, 1971. 



47 



KENTUCKY / LOUISIANA 

PERRYVILLE BATTLEFIELD, west of Perryville on U.S. 

150, Boyle County. 1862. 

Site (in October 1862) of the battle which climaxed the 

major Confederate invasion of Kentucky. December 19, 

1960. 

SHAKERTOWN AT PLEASANT HILL HISTORIC DIS- 
TRICT, Shakertown and vicinity, Mercer County. 19th 
century. 

Probably the most successful of the 19th-century commu- 
nal religious settlements. By 1820 some 500 Shakers lived 
here on 3000 acres of land. The community was not 
dissolved until 1910. November 11, 1971. 

SPRINGFIELD (ZACHARY TAYLOR HOUSE), 5608 
Apache Road, Louisville, Jefferson County, c. 1780. 
Taylor's home for more than 20 years, in the period prior 
to his military career and his short term as President of the 
United States. July 4, 1961. 



Louisiana 



ACADIAN HOUSE, La. 31, within Longfellow Evangeline 
State Park, St. Martinville, St. Martin Parish. 1765. 
Represents a type of building adapted to local climate and 
materials, once common to the region. Built of hand-hewn 
cypress, with walls of adobe and moss. May 30, 1974. 

CABILDO, THE, Jackson Square, Chartres and St. Peter 
Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish. 1795, Gilberto 
Guillemard. 

Originally housed the administrative and legislative council 
which ruled Spanish Louisiana. Exhibits the strong influ- 
ence of Spanish architecture in the territory. October 9, 
1960. 

CABLE, GEORGE WASHINGTON, HOUSE, 1313 8th 

Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish. 1874. 
As the voice of the Louisiana Creoles, Cable made major 
contributions to American regional literature. His work 
made the term "Creole" better known and understood. 
December 29, 1962. 

COURTHOUSE AND LAWYERS' ROW, Clinton, East 
Feliciana Parish. Mid-1 9th century. 

Greek Revival Courthouse and five adjacent law office 
buildings are of harmonious design and have survived intact. 
May 30, 1974. 

DILLARD, JAMES H., HOME, 571 Audubon Street, New 
Orleans, Orleans Parish. 19th century. 

Dillard played an important role in black education in the 
19th century, strengthening vocational and teacher-training 
programs. Lived here from 1894 to 1913. December 2, 
1975. 



48 



LOUISIANA 

FORT DE LA BOULAYE, near Phoenix on the Mississippi 
River, near La. 50, Plaquemines Parish. 1700. 

Founded when France claimed possession of the mouth of 
the Mississippi River. Hostile Indians forced its abandon- 
ment in 1 707. October 9, 1960. 

FORT JACKSON, 2.5 miles southeast of Triumph on La. 

23, on the west bank of the Mississippi River, Plaquemines 

Parish. 1822. 

Failure of the Fort to stop the Union Navy under Admiral 

Farragut in 1862 caused the Confederacy to lose New 

Orleans. Little altered from its original state. December 1 9, 

1960. 

FORT JESUP, 7 miles northeast of Many on La. 6, Fort 
Jesup State Monument, Sabine Parish. 1822. 
Most southwesterly military outpost in the United States 
from its establishment in 1822 until the Mexican War. In 
March 1 845 Texas was offered admission to the Union and 
General Zachary Taylor's "Army of Observation" was 
ordered to hold its troops ready to march into Texas. Texas 
acted favorably, and Taylor was ordered to move by water 
into Texas. His mission to be defense of Texas unless 
Mexico should declare war. July 4, 1961. 

FORT ST. PHILIP, 2.5 miles southeast of Triumph on La. 
23, on the east bank of the Mississippi River. Plaquemines 
Parish. 1795. 

Erected by the French across the river from Fort Jackson, 
this Fort also surrendered after an attack by Admiral 
Farragut 's force in 1862. December 19, 1960. 

GALLIER HALL, 545 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, 
Orleans Parish. 19th century. 

Finest remaining work of architect James Gallier, Jr. 
Originally designed as headquarters for the city govern- 
ment. May 30, 1974. 

GALLIER HOUSE, 1132 Royal Street, New Orleans, 
Orleans Parish. 1857-1860. 

James Gallier, Jr., one of New Orleans' most prominent 
architects, built this house for himself. In typical Louisiana 
manner almost all the living rooms open to porches, 
galleries, or balconies. May 30, 1974. 

GARDEN DISTRICT, THE, bounded by Carondelet, Jose- 
phine, and Magazine Streets, and Louisiana Avenue, New 
Orleans, Orleans Parish. 19th and 20th centuries. 
Fashionable residential section since the 1830's, with 
homes representing all styles of popular architecture from 
antebellum times to the present. May 30, 1974. 

HERMANN-GRIMA HOUSE, 818-820 St. Louis Street, 
New Orleans, Orleans Parish, c. 1831. 

Illustrates the influence of American building styles upon 
New Orleans architecture after the Louisiana Purchase. May 
30, 1974. 



49 



LOUISIANA 

HOMEPLACE PLANTATION HOUSE, La. 18, 0.5 mile 
south of Hahnville, St. Charles Parish, c. 1801. 
Excellent example of a French Colonial, two-story, raised- 
cottage. Second story walls are cypress timbers filled in 
with a clay and Spanish moss mixture. April 15, 1970. 

JACKSON SQUARE (PLACE D'ARMES), bounded by 
Decatur, St. Peter, St. Ann, and Chartres Streets, New 
Orleans, Orleans Parish. 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. 
Center of the city since the first plan was drawn up in 
1720. Here, in 1803, the American flag was raised for the 
first time over the newly purchased Louisiana Territory. 
October 9, 1960. 

LAFITTE'S BLACKSMITH SHOP, 941 Bourbon Street, 
New Orleans, Orleans Parish. Late 18th century. 
One-story cottage traditionally associated with Jean and 
Pierre Lafitte, adventurers who posed as blacksmiths while 
engaging in illegal business ventures. April 15, 1970. 

MADAME JOHN'S LEGACY, 632 Dumaine Street, New 
Orleans, Orleans Parish. 1722-1728, 1788 (rebuilt). 
A French Colonial, raised-cottage townhouse, once a 
popular type of city dwelling. April 15, 1970. 

MARKSVILLE PREHISTORIC INDIAN SITE, Marksville 
Prehistoric Indian Park, Marksville vicinity, Avovelles 
Parish. First century A.D. 

Type site for the Marksville culture, a southern variant of 
the Ohio Hopewell. Characterized by extensive burial 
mounds. July 19, 1964. 

MAYOR GIROD HOUSE, 500 Chartres Street, New Or- 
leans, Orleans Parish. 1797, service wing; 1814, main house. 
Nicholas Girod, builder of this three-story brick house, was 
mayor of New Orleans from 1812 to 1815. Ironwork 
balconies decorate the second floor, and the structure is 
surmounted by an octagonal cupola. April 15, 1970. 

OAK ALLEY PLANTATION, Vacherie, St. James Parish. 
1837-1839. 

Probably the finest of the few remaining full peripteral 
plantation houses, with a colonnade of 28 Doric columns. 
A double row of giant live oak trees forms the 800-foot 
long oak alley leading to the house. December 2, 1974. 

OLD LOUISIANA STATE CAPITOL, North Boulevard and 
St. Philip Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish. 
19th century, James Harrison Dakin. 

Described as castellated Gothic, the building is considered 
one of the finest examples of Gothic Revival architecture in 
the country. May 30, 1974. 

PARLANGE PLANTATION HOUSE, junction of La. 1 and 
78, Mix vicinity, Pointe Coupee Parish, c. 1750. 

One of the best examples of a French Colonial plantation 
house of the two-story, raised-cottage type. April 15, 1970. 



50 



LOUISIANA 

PONTALBA BUILDINGS, Jackson Square, New Orleans, 
Orleans Parish. 1849-1851. 

Fine residences and quality shops are combined in struc- 
tures designed to unify the architectural composition of 
Jackson Square. May 30, 197.4. 

PORT HUDSON, Port Hudson, East Feliciana Parish. 
1860's. 

A Confederate stronghold and the scene of an assault by 
two Union regiments composed of free blacks and ex-slaves 
from Louisiana. July 1, 1974. 

POVERTY POINT, 12 miles north of Delhi on Bayou 
Macon, West Carroll Parish, c. 700 B.C. 
Largest and most complex ceremonial earthworks of its 
kind yet found in North America. June 13, 1962. 

PRESBYTERE, THE, 713 Chartres Street, New Orleans, 
Orleans Parish, c. 1791-1813, Gilberto Guillemard. 
Designed as a companion building to the Cabildo and in- 
tended as the parish rectory for St. Louis Cathedral. Con- 
structed during the period of Spanish rule. April 15, 1970. 

ST. MARY'S ASSUMPTION CHURCH, 2039 Constance 
Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish. 1858. 
Constructed for German Catholics, the Church's interior 
and exterior ornamentation make it a striking example of 
German Baroque architecture. May 30, 1974. 

ST. PATRICK'S CHURCH, 724 Camp Street, New Orleans, 
Orleans Parish. 1830's. 

Early date of erection, size, and interior decoration make 
St. Patrick's one of the most noteworthy examples of the 
Gothic Revival style. May 30, 1974. 

SAN FRANCISCO PLANTATION HOUSE, State Route 
144, Reserve, St. John the Baptist Parish. 1849-1850. 

A mixture of architectural styles, dominated by an im- 
mense, ornate, hip roof and bracketed cornice. Paintings 
decorate the wood ceiling and door panels. May 30, 1974. 

SHADOWS-ON-THE-TECHE, East Main Street, New Iberia, 
Iberia Parish. 1831-1834. 

Built for a wealthy planter by master builder James Bedell. 
Two-story porticoed townhouse, made of locally fired, 
coral-colored brick. May 30, 1974. 

UNITED STATES CUSTOMHOUSE, 423 Canal Street, 
New Orleans, Orleans Parish. 1848-1862. 
Located in a busy port, the Customhouse was of major 
importance. When built, it was considered second only to 
the United States Capitol in size. December 2, 1974. 

URSULINE CONVENT, 1114 Chartres Street, New Or- 
leans, Orleans Parish. 1748-1752. 

An important historic and religious monument. Con- 
structed for nuns whose mission it was to nurse the poor 
and teach young girls. October 9, 1960. 



51 



LOUISIANA / MAINE 

VIEUX CARRE HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by th< 
Mississippi River, Rampart Street, Canal Street, and Espla 
nade Avenue, New Orleans, Orleans Parish. 18th and 19tr 
centuries. 

Known as the "French Quarter, " this 85-block area almos\ 
coincides with the original city plan, laid out in 1721 
Within the District are a wide variety of architectural styles 
December 21, 1965. 

YUCCA PLANTATION (MELROSE), La. 119, 0.1 mil< 
east of intersection with La. 493, Melrose, Natchitoche: 
Parish. 18th and 19th centuries. 

Established by a former slave who became a wealthy 
businesswoman. The African House, a unique structun 
with an umbrella-like roof, may be of direct Africa? 
derivation. May 30, 1974. 



Maine 



BLAINE, JAMES G., HOUSE, Capitol and State Streets 
Augusta, Kennebec County, c. 1830. 

Blaine was Speaker of the House of Representatives, twice c 
Senator, and twice Secretary of State. Helped establish tht 
Pan-American Union in 1890. January 29, 1964. 

DOW, NEAL, HOUSE, 714 Congress Street, Portland 
Cumberland County. 1829. 

A leading 19th-century proponent of Prohibition, Dow wa. 
a candidate for the Presidency in 1880 on the Prohibition 
Party ticket. May 30, 1974. 

FORT HALIFAX, on U.S. 201 at Winslow, Kennebe* 
County. 1754. 

A defensive outpost during the French and Indian War, thi 
Fort contains the oldest surviving example of a lo± 
blockhouse, built for protection against Indian raids 
November 25, 1968. 

FORT KENT, 0.75 mile southwest of Fort Kent City of 
Me. 11, Aroostook County. 1839-1843. 

Built as a result of the boundary dispute with Canada an> 
abandoned after the signing of the Webster-Ashburto 
Treaty in 1842, which fixed the boundary line. Novembe 
7, 1973. 

FORT KNOX, on U.S. 1 near Prospect, Waldo County 
1844. 

Constructed after settlement of the Maine boundary di 
pute with Great Britain. Measures 350 feet by 280 feet an 
contains a magazine, barracks, and other outbuilding 
December 30, 1970. 

FORT WESTERN, Bowman Street, Augusta, Kennebf 
County. 1754. 



52 



MAINE 

Constructed as a supply depot for the British Army. 
Supplies were assembled here for General Benedict Arnold's 
march on Quebec in 1 775. November 7, 1973. 

GILMAN, DANIEL COIT, SUMMER HOME (OVER 
EDGE), Northeast Harbor, Hancock County, c. 1880. 

As the first president of Johns Hopkins University from 
1875 to 1901, Gilman made graduate education a recog- 
nized university responsibility. December 21, 1965. 

GOVERNOR'S HOME (NATIONAL HOME FOR DIS- 
ABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS), Togus, Kennebec 
County. 1866. 

Only remaining original building. Home has served Ameri- 
ca's disabled veterans for more than a century. May 30, 
1974. 

HAMILTON HOUSE, Vaughn's Lane and Old South Road, 
South Berwick, York County. 1787-1788. 
Colonel Jonathan Hamilton, a merchant, built this 2 l /2-story 
frame building and occupied it until his death in 1802. 
December 30, 1970. 

HARPSWELL MEETINGHOUSE, Harpswell Center on Me. 
123, 9 miles south of Brunswick, Cumberland County. 
1757-1759. 

Simple, clapboarded, two-story, frame structure, a little- 
altered example of a small New England Colonial church. 
Used as a town meeting hall from 1757 to 1844. November 
24, 1968. 

HOMER, WINSLOW, STUDIO, Winslow Homer Road, 
Prout's Neck, Scarborough, Cumberland County, c. 1870. 

Converted stable at the edge of the ocean, used as a studio 
by an artist particularly noted for his seascapes, landscapes, 
and Civil War paintings. December 21, 1965. 

LADY PEPPERRELL HOUSE, Me. 103, Kittery Point, 
York County, c. 1760. 

Built by the widow of Sir William Pepperrell, colonial 
businessman and Commander of American land forces at 
the capture of Louisburg in 1745. Late Georgian-style 
house is important in the history of Colonial architecture 

m New England. October 9, 1960. 

| 

(VIcINTIRE GARRISON HOUSE, on Me. 91 about 5 miles 
arest of York, York County, c. 1690 or 1707. 

3uilt with thick, protective walls, the house is representa- 
tive of the vernacular log architecture widely used in New 
\5ngland in the 1 7th century as a defense against Indians. 
November 24, 1968. 

McLELLAN-SWEAT MANSION, 111 High Street, Port- 
and, Cumberland County. Early 19th century. 
ederal in design, the mansion is highlighted by a semi- 
circular entrance portico with Doric pillars. Interior fea- 
ures an unusual flying staircase. December 30, 1970. 



53 



MAINE 

MORSE-LIBBY MANSION, 109 Danforth Street, Portland, 
Cumberland County. 1859-1863, Henry Austin. 

Built as a summer home by a New Orleans businessman. 
Interior contains Carrara marble fireplaces and rosewood 
doors. December 30, 1970. 

NICKELS-SORTWELL HOUSE, northeast corner of Main 

and Federal Streets, Wiscasset, Lincoln County. 1807- 

1808. 

A three-story, L-shaped, Federal townhouse. Crowned by a 

low hip roof, the house has an elaborate facade. Decembei 

30, 1970. 

OLD YORK GAOL, 4 Lindsay Road, York, York County 
c. 1720. 

Served as the York County Jail from 1 720 until the early 
19th century. Exterior of the stone cell portion is built o) 
coursed, dressed rubble. November 24, 1968. 

ROBINSON, EDWIN ARLINGTON, HOUSE, 67 Lincoln 
Avenue, Gardiner, Kennebec County. 19th-20th centuries. 
The Pulitzer Prize-winning poet grew up in this two-story 
white clapboard house and wrote much of his poetry here. 
November 11, 1971. 

SABBATHDAY LAKE SHAKER VILLAGE, Sabbathday 
Lake, Route 26, New Gloucester, Androscoggin County 
18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. 

Founded in 1 783 and the only remaining active Shakei 
community in the world. A representative collection oj 
Shaker implements and furniture is housed in the buildings. 
May 30, 1974. 

STOWE, HARRIET BEECHER, HOUSE, 63 Federal Street 
Brunswick, Cumberland County. 1804. 
Stowe's indictment of slavery, Uncle Tom's Cabin, was 
written here in 1851. Her book was widely influential on 
the anti-slavery movement. December 29, 1962. 

TATE HOUSE, 1270 Westbrook Street, Stroudwater, Cum 
berland County. 1755. 

Built by an agent for the Royal Navy, the house has a sym- 
metrical Georgian facade. Interior features eight fireplaces 
connected to a central chimney. November 11, 1971. 

WADSWORTH-LONGFELLOW HOUSE, 487 Congress 
Street, Portland, Cumberland County. 1786. 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow lived here from his birth in 
1807 until 1843 and composed several of his best-knowri 
poems in this house. December 29, 1962. 

WICKYUP (ADMIRAL RICHARD E. BYRD ESTATE), 8 

miles northeast of East Sullivan at the south end of Tunki 
Lake, Hancock County. 1929. 

A pioneering aviator and explorer, Byrd planned his threi 
Antarctic expeditions and wrote his last book in this lo£ 
lodge. August 29, 1970. 



54 



Maryland 



ACCOKEEK CREEK SITE, opposite Mount Vernon on the 
Potomac River, west of Piscataway Park, Accokeek vicinity, 
Prince Georges County, c. 4000 B.C. 

Earliest occupation of this site occurred before the use of 
pottery was known. Principally used during the 14th and 
15th centuries. July 19, 1964. 

BALTIMORE AND OHIO TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM 
AND MOUNT CLARE STATION, Pratt and Poppleton 
Streets, Baltimore City. Mount Clare Station, 1830; pas- 
senger car roundhouse, 1884; museum annex, 1891, 
Ephriam F. Baldwin. 

Station inaugurated regular passenger service in the United 
States in 1830 and the Nation's first telegraph message 
passed through Mount Clare in 1844. The Roundhouse 
contains the historical collection. September 15, 1961. 

BRICE HOUSE, 42 East Street, Annapolis, Anne Arundel 
County. 1766-1773. 

A five-part, brick, Georgian-style dwelling with interiors 
attributed to William Buckland. Originally owned by James 
Brice, a leader in colonial Annapolis' affairs. April 15, 
1970. 

CARROLLTON VIADUCT, Gwynn's Falls near Carroll 
Park, Baltimore City. 1829, James Lloyd. 

First masonry railroad bridge erected in the United States. 
Originally built to carry the tracks of the Baltimore and 
Ohio. November 11, 1971. 

CASSELMAN'S BRIDGE, NATIONAL ROAD, east of 
Grantsville on U.S. 40, Garrett County. 1813. 
The Bridge was part of the earliest Federal highway project, 
the National Road. At completion, it had the largest stone 
arch in the United States. January 29, 1 964. 

CHASE-LLOYD HOUSE, 22 Maryland Avenue, Annapolis, 
Anne Arundel County. 1769-1774. 

One of the earliest three-story Georgian townhouses erected 
in the British colonies. Much of the interior work was done 
by William Buckland. April 15, 1970. 

CHESTERTOWN HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded roughly 
by the Chester River on the southeast, by Cannon Street on 
the southwest, by Maple Avenue on the northeast, and by 
Cross Street on the northwest, Chestertown, Kent County. 
18th century. 

Flourished between 1 750 and 1 790 as the chief tobacco 
and wheat shipping port on the Eastern Shore. Wealthy 
merchants and planters constructed the elaborate Georgian 
brick townhouses found in the district. April 15, 1970. 



55 



MARYLAND 

COLONIAL ANNAPOLIS HISTORIC DISTRICT, district 
boundaries approximate the city boundaries surveyed in 
1695, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County. 17th and 18th 
centuries. 

Capital of both the Colony and the State, and one of the 
first planned cities in colonial America. Focal point o) 
government and commerce in mid-1 8th century. Some 12C 
18th-century buildings remain in the district. June 23 
1965. 

DOUGHOREGAN MANOR, 8 miles west of Ellicott Cit> 
on Manor Lane, Howard County, c. 1727. 
Country home of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, a signer o s 
the Declaration of Independence and a Member of tht 
Continental Congress. Georgian brick plantation house wat 
enlarged and remodeled in 1830's. November 11,1 971. 

ELLICOTT CITY STATION, just south of the Patapscc 
River Bridge, Ellicott City, Howard County. 1830-1831. 

Oldest railroad station in the United States, still in use 
Served as the western terminus of the original 13-miU 
section of track. November 24, 1968. 

FIRST UNITARIAN CHURCH, 2-12 W. Franklin Street 
Baltimore City. 1817-1818, Maximilian Godefroy. 

Represents a departure from the late Georgian and early 
neoclassical styles popular at this period. Church desigr 
stresses the interplay of geometric forms. November 11 
1971. 

FORT FREDERICK, Fort Frederick State Park, Washing 
ton County. 1756. 

Southern Colonies' largest 18th-century frontier fort 
Sheltered some 700 people during the 1 763 Pontiai 
Uprising. November 7, 1973. 

HABRE-DE-VENTURE, Rose Hill Road, near junctior 
with Md. 225 and Md. 6, Port Tobacco, Charles County 
1771. 

Built by Thomas Stone, a signer of the Declaration o] 
Independence for Maryland. A Georgian, five-part, bricl 
and frame structure. November 11, 1971. 

HAMMOND-HARWOOD HOUSE, Maryland Avenue anc 
King George Street, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County 
c. 1774, William Buckland. 

One of the most significant Georgian period residences it 
Annapolis. Arched fanlight doorway, dining room, anc\ 
ballroom are noted for their carved decorative woodwork 
October 9, 1960. 

HIS LORDSHIP'S KINDNESS, 3.5 miles west of Rosary 
ville, Prince Georges County, c. 1735. 

Excellent example of a late Georgian, five-part plantatio 
house. Built by the Earl of Shrewsbury as a wedding gift fc 
his niece. April 15, 19 70. 



56 



MARYLAND 

HOMEWOOD, N. Charles and 34th Streets, Baltimore City. 
1801-1803. 

Charles Carroll, Jr., son of a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence and member of a prominent Maryland 
family, built this sophisticated Federal style house, a 
five-part composition in brick, with stone trim. November 
11, 1971. 

KENNEDY FARM (JOHN BROWN'S HEADQUARTERS), 

Chestnut Grove Road, Samples Manor, Washington County. 

Appears substantially as it did when John Brown, aboli- 
tionist leader, planned his 1859 raid on the Harpers Ferry 
arsenal here. November 7, 1973. 

LONDON TOWN PUBLIK HOUSE, northeast of Woodland 
Beach at the end of Londontown Road, Anne Arundel 
County, c. 1750. 

A large, Georgian, brick inn which originally served a major 
north-south turnpike and the ferry crossing at South River. 
Used as a county almshouse between 1828 and 1966. April 
15, 1970. 

MARYLAND STATEHOUSE, State Circle, Annapolis, 
Anne Arundel County, c. 1772. 

Treaty of Paris was ratified here by the Continental 
Congress in 1 784 ending the Revolutionary War, George 
Washington officially resigned his commission as Com- 
mander in Chief, and in 1786 the Annapolis Convention 
met here. December 19, 1960. 

MINOR BASILICA OF THE ASSUMPTION OF THE 
BLESSED VIRGIN MARY, 401 Cathedral Street, Balti- 
more City. 1806-1863, Benjamin Henry Latrobe. 

Many alterations were made on the original Latrobe design 
during construction, most notably the addition of two 
onion-shaped domes. Cathedral is cruciform in plan and 
constructed of granite. November 11, 1971. 

MONOCACY BATTLEFIELD, south of Monocacy River, 
east of Int. 270, north of Baker Valley Road, west of 
Md. 355, Frederick County. 1864. 

Confederates under General Jubal Early pushed back Union 
troops commanded by General Lew Wallace here in July of 
1864. Three-day battle gave the Union Army a chance to 
prepare a defense of Washington, saving it from a Confed- 
erate invasion. June 21, 1934. 

MONTPELIER, 2.1 miles east of Laurel on Md. 197, Prince 
Georges County, c. 1745. 

Distinguished example of a late Georgian, five-part planta- 
tion house, with exceptionally fine interiors. Formal 
gardens surround the house. April 15, 1970. 



MOUNT CLARE, Carroll Park, Baltimore City. c. 1763. 
A brick, Georgian, plantation house, the oldest Colonial 
structure in the city of Baltimore. Served as quarters for 
Union soldiers during the Civil War. April 15, 1970. 



57 



MARYLAND 

MOUNT VERNON PLACE HISTORIC DISTRICT, Mount 
Vernon Place and Washington Place, Baltimore City. 19th 
century. 

A cross-shaped park containing a monument to George 
Washington became the focal point of a fashionable 
residential district, with a number of architecturally distin- 
guished homes. November 11, 1971. 

OLD LOCK PUMP HOUSE, CHESAPEAKE AND DELA- 
WARE CANAL, U.S. 213, Chesapeake City, Cecil County. 
1837. 

The Pump House improved the operation of a key section 
of the Canal. Houses two of the original steam engines and 
a large scoop wheel. January 12, 1965. 

PACA, WILLIAM, HOUSE, 186 Prince George Street, 
Annapolis, Anne Arundel County. 1765. 
Five-part Palladian style residence, home of William Paca, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence and a member of 
the State convention which ratified the Constitution. 
November 11, 1971. 

PEALE'S BALTIMORE MUSEUM, 225 N. Holliday Street, 

Baltimore City. 1814. 

First building in the United States to be designed and 

erected exclusively for museum use. Presently houses 

exhibits covering the history of Baltimore. December 21, 

1965. 

PHOENIX SHOT TOWER, southeast corner of Fayette and 
Front Streets, Baltimore City. 1828. 

Shot was manufactured by dropping molten lead from this 
14-story tower into a vat of cold water. Some one million 
bags of shot were produced yearly in this way. 

POE, EDGAR ALLAN, HOUSE, 203 Amity Street, Balti 
more City. 19th century. 

Poe occupied this house from 1833 to 1835, at a time when 
his short stories were beginning to attract favorable 
attention. November 11, 1971. 

RESURRECTION MANOR, 4 miles east of Hollywood, St. 
Marys County, c. 1660. 

Small, unrestored 1 7th-century brick farmhouse, located on 
one of the earliest manorial grants made in Maryland. April 
15, 1970. 

ST. MARYS CITY HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by St. 
Marys River, St. Inigoes Creek, Broome Creek, and Chan- 
cellor's Creek, St. Marys County. 1634-1695. 

Capital of the Maryland Colony until 1695 and the third 
permanent English settlement in America. Foundations o) 
some 60 buildings remain for archeological study. August 4. 
1969. 



58 



MARYLAND 

ST. MARYS SEMINARY CHAPEL, 600 N. Paca Street, 
Baltimore City. 1806-1808, Maximilian Godefroy. 
First Neo-Gothic church built in the United States. De- 
signed for the Sulpician priests of the Seminary. November 
11, 1971. 

SHEPPARD AND ENOCH PRATT HOSPITAL AND 
GATE HOUSE, Charles Street Avenue, Towson, Baltimore 
County. 1862-1891, Calvert Vaux (hospital); 1860, 
Thomas and James M. Dixon (gatehouse). 
A leading private institution for the treatment of the 
mentally ill. Tudor Revival gatehouse has become a symbol 
for the hospital. November 11, 1971. 

STAR SPANGLED BANNER FLAG HOUSE, 844 E. Pratt 
Street, Baltimore City. c. 1793. 

Flag that flew over Fort McHenry during the British attack 
in 1814 was made here. Inspired Francis Scott Key's "The 
Star-Spangled Banner. " December 16, 1 969. 

STEWART, PEGGY, HOUSE, 207 Hanover Street, Annap- 
olis, Anne Arundel County. 1764. 

Named for the wife of the Annapolis merchant who was 
forced to burn his own ship after being accused of violating 
the importation ban on English tea in 1774. November 7, 
1973. 

THOMAS VIADUCT, BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAIL- 
ROAD, over the Patapsco River between Relay and 
Elkridge, Baltimore and Howard Counties. 1835. 
One of the oldest of the multiple stone-arched railroad 
bridges and an early, notable, example of railroad bridge 
construction. January 28, 1964. 

TULIP HILL, 2.5 miles west of Galesville on Owensville 
Road, Anne Arundel County. 1755-1756; 1787-1790 

(wings added). 

An early Georgian plantation house, in a five-part composi- 
tion. Entire house measures 135 feet across and is set on a 
stone basement. April 15, 1970. 

UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY, Maryland Avenue 
and Hanover Street, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County. 
1845, Ernest Flagg (Waiting Room, 1876; Guard House, 

1881). 

Academy has played a significant role in American naval 
affairs, producing career officers for over a hundred years. 
Most of the buildings are late French Renaissance in style. 
Only a few of the older buildings survive. July 4, 1 961 . 

U.S.S. CONSTELLATION, Pier 1, Pratt Street, Baltimore 
City. 1797. 

In commission longer than any other vessel in the Navy, the 
"Constellation" was the first American ship to engage and 
defeat an enemy vessel. May 23, 1963. 



59 



MARYLAND / MASSACHUSETTS 

WEST ST. MARY'S MANOR, about 1 mile east of Draytor 

on the St. Marys River, St. Marys County. Early 18tr 

century. 

A rare example of a small William and Mary brick-and 

frame country house. Constructed on the earliest grant o } 

land recorded in Maryland. April 15, 1970. 

WHITEHALL, off St. Margaret's Road, Annapolis, Anne 
Arundel County, c. 1765. 

Built by Governor Horatio Sharpe as a country retreat 
Exhibits a high level of achievement in Georgian design 
with notable carved decoration in the main rooms. Octobe, 
9, 1960. 

WYE HOUSE, 6.9 miles northwest of Easton, on Mile: 
Neck Road, Talbot County. 1781-1784, 1799. 
Built for Edward Lloyd IV, a wealthy landowner. Nearby u 
the Orangerie, with a rare example of an 18th-century 
central heating system. April 15, 1970. 



Massachusetts 



ADAMS, JOHN, BIRTHPLACE, 133 Franklin Street 
Quincy, Norfolk County. 1681. 

Adams, first Vice President and second President of tht 
United States, lived here until 1 764. Built in the saltboy 
style, with much of the original fabric remaining. December 
19,1960. 

ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, BIRTHPLACE, 141 Franklir 
Street, Quincy, Norfolk County. 1663. 

Adams, sixth President of the United States, was born hen 
in 1 767. The original kitchen served as a law office for hu 
father, John Adams, for several years. December 19, 1960 

AFRICAN MEETING HOUSE, 8 Smith Court, Boston 
Suffolk County. 1805. 

Brick meeting house, used as the first black church it 
Boston. Oldest existing black church building in the Unitec 
States. May 30, 1974. 

AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY, 185 Salisbury 
Street, Worcester, Worcester County. 1910-1930. 

Established in 1812, and the third historical society 
founded in this country. Important depository for earh 
Americana. November 24, 1968. 

ARNOLD ARBORETUM, 22 Divinity Avenue, Bostoi 
Suffolk County, c. 1873, Frederick Law Olmsted. 
Began as a tree farm for Harvard University. Now 
pre-eminent institution for plant research, with some 6,00\ 
species of trees and shrubs. January 12, 1965. 

ARROWHEAD (HERMAN MELVILLE HOUSE), Holmej 



60 



MASSASHUSETTS 

Road, Pittsfield, Berkshire County. 1794. 

Melville, a major American literary figure, wrote Moby Dick 
while living in this house from 1850 to 1863. December 29, 
1962. 

BEACON HILL HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by Bea- 
con Street on the south, the Charles River Embankment on 
the west, Pinckney and Revere Streets on the north, and 
Hancock Street on the east, Boston, Suffolk County. 18th 
and 19th centuries. 

Federal and Greek Revival style buildings, some designed 
by Charles Bulfinch, make the area architecturally signifi- 
cant. Residence of many distinguished 19th-century figures, 
including Edwin Booth and Francis Parkman. December 19, 
1962. 

BELLAMY, EDWARD, HOUSE, 91-93 Church Street, 
Chicopee Falls, Hampden County. 19th century. 
Concerned with social and economic justice, journalist 
Bellamy wrote Looking Backward (1888) describing a 
Utopian American society. November 11, 1971. 

BOARDMAN HOUSE, Howard Street, Saugus, Essex 
County, c. 1680. 

Typical of the 1 1 th-century frame dwellings constructed by 
English colonists. Much of the original framework and 
interior finishing detail remains. November 5, 1961. 

BOSTON ATHENAEUM, IOV2 Beacon Street, Boston, 
Suffolk County. 1847. 

Largest of the Nation's early proprietary libraries. Part of 
the libraries of George Washington and John Quincy 
Adams, as well as early pamphlets of historical value, are 
owned by the Athenaeum. December 21, 1965. 

BOSTON LIGHT, Little Brewster Island, Boston Harbor, 
Boston, Suffolk County. 1716, 1783 (reconstruction). 
Site of the first lighthouse in North America, destroyed by 
the British in 1776. Reconstructed 89-foot tower is made 
up of rubble stone, granite, and brick. January 29, 1964. 

BOWDITCH, NATHANIEL, HOME, North Street, Salem, 
Essex County. Early 19th century. 

Bowditch effected great advances in navigation and helped 
bring European mathematics to America. January 12, 1965. 

BRANDEIS, LOUIS, HOUSE, Neck Lane, off Cedar Street, 
8 miles southwest of Stage Harbor Road intersection, 
Chatham, Barnstable County. 20th century. 

Brandeis was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1916 by 
President Wilson. Often stood with Justice Holmes against 
the court majority. November 28, 1972. 

BROOK FARM, 670 Baker Street, West Roxbury, Suffolk 
County. 1841. 

founded to promote the New England transcendentalists' 



61 



MASSACHUSETTS 

ideal of "plain living and high thinking." Ralph Waldo 
Emerson and Nathaniel Hawthorne were associated with 
the farm. June 23, 1965. 

BRYANT, WILLIAM CULLEN, HOMESTEAD, 2 miles 
from Cummington on side road, Hampshire County. 
c.1799. 

Poet and critic Bryant lived here until early manhood and 
composed some of his best-known poems in this house. 
December 29, 1962. 

BUCKMAN TAVERN, Hancock Street, on the east side of 
Lexington Green, Lexington, Middlesex County, c. 1690. 
Oldest of the Lexington hostelries, named for proprietor 
John Buckman, a member of the Lexington Company oj 
Minute Men. Served as a gathering place for them when 
they trained on the Green. January 20, 1961. 

CAPEN (PARSON) HOUSE, Howlett Street, Topsfield, 
Essex County. 1683. 

One of the finest surviving English Colonial dwellings in the 
United States. Gable-roofed, with an oak frame rising two 
stories, and a clapboard exterior. October 9, 1960. 

CHRIST CHURCH, Garden Street, Cambridge, Middlesex 
County. 1759-1761, Peter Harrison. 

One of the finest surviving 18th-century religious buildings 
in the New England colonies. Designed as a typical Anglican 
church, with focus on the altar. October 9, 1960. 

COFFIN, JETHRO, HOUSE, Sunset Hill, Nantucket, Nan- 
tucket County, c. 1686. 

A V/i-story frame dwelling with a big central chimney and 
four large fireplaces, the Coffin house is a restored example 
of a 1 Ith-century New England saltbox house. November 
24, 1968. 

COLE'S HILL, Carver Street, Plymouth, Plymouth County. 
1620. 

Burial place of the colonists who died in the first winter oj 
settlement. Nearby is Plymouth Rock, legendary Pilgrim 
landing site. October 9, 1960. 

CUFFE, PAUL, FARM, 1504 Drift Road, Westport, Bristol 
County, c. 1797. 

Cuffe, a self-educated black man who became a prosperous 
merchant, pioneered in the struggle for minority rights in 
the 18th and early 19th centuries and was active in the 
movement for black settlement in Africa. May 30, 1974. 

CUSHING, CALEB, HOUSE, 98 High Street, Newburyportj 
Essex County. 19th century. 

Home of the diplomat who negotiated a treaty with China 
in 1844 which gave the United States major diplomatic and, 
trade privileges. November 7, 1973. 



62 



MASSACHUSETTS 

DERBY SUMMERHOUSE, Glen Magna Estate, Ingersoll 
Street, Danvers, Essex County. 1792-1793. 

Formal 18th-century garden house designed in the Federal 
style, with Adamesque decoration. November 24, 1968. 

DICKINSON, EMILY, HOME, 280 Main Street, Amherst, 
Hampshire County. 1813. 

An important poet, Emily Dickinson made this house her 
home for her entire life (1830-1886), living in partial seclu- 
sion and writing poetry. December 29, 1962. 

ELMWOOD (JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL HOME), Elm- 
wood Avenue, Cambridge, Middlesex County. 1766. 

Occupied by Lowell, writer, editor, and Harvard professor, 
from his birth in 1819 until his death in 1891. December 
29,1962. 

EMERSON, RALPH WALDO, HOME, Lexington Road and 
Cambridge Turnpike, Concord, Middlesex County. 1835. 

Emerson, poet, essayist, and lecturer, occupied this square 
frame house from 1835 until his death in 1882. December 
29, 1962. 

ETHER DOME, MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPI- 
TAL, Fruit Street, Boston, Suffolk County. 1818, Charles 
Bulfinch. 

First publicized use of ether as a surgical anesthetic took 
place here in 1846. January 12, 1965. 

FAIRBANKS HOUSE, Eastern Avenue and East Street, 
Dedham, Norfolk County, c. 1636. 

Typical of the "growing house, " a type of dwelling which 
the owner added to as his family increased. One of the 
oldest frame dwellings in the United States. October 9, 
1960. 

FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, LANCASTER, facing the 
Common, Lancaster, Worcester County. 1816, Charles 
Bulfinch. 

Two-story, rectangular, brick church. Most noteworthy 
exterior features are the two-stage front tower and the giant 
portico. December 30, 1970. 

FIRST HARRISON GRAY OTIS HOUSE, 141 Cambridge 
Street, Boston, Suffolk County. 1795-1796, Charles Bul- 
finch. 

Built for a lawyer and politician, the second-floor drawing 
room has a low dado, finely detailed cornice, and mantels 
with Adamesque friezes. December 30, 1970. 

FORBES, CAPT. R. B., HOUSE, 215 Adams Street, Milton, 
Norfolk County. 1833. 

Chinese furnishings in this three-story Greek Revival house 
reflect the Captain's financial success in the 18th-century 
China trade. November 13, 1966. 



63 



MASSACHUSETTS 

FORT WARREN, Georges Island, Boston Harbor, Suffolk 
County. 1834-1863. 

A bastioned star fort with outer walls 8 feet thick. Served 
as a prison for Confederate leaders during the Civil War. 
August 29, 1970. 

FRENCH, DANIEL CHESTER, HOME AND STUDIO 
(CHESTERWOOD), 2 miles west of Stockbridge, Berkshire 
County. 1900-1901, Henry Bacon. 

French, a noted sculptor, did the Minute Man statue in 
Concord and the seated figure of Lincoln at the Lincoln 
Memorial in Washington. December 21, 1965. 

FRUITLANDS, Prospect Hill, Harvard, Worcester County. 

A modest farmhouse which served as the home for Bronson 
Alcott's "New Eden," an experiment in communal living. 
May 30, 1974. 

FULLER, MARGARET, HOUSE, 71 Cherry Street, Cam 
bridge, Middlesex County. 1806-1807. 

Good example of wooden Federal architecture. Fuller, c 
19th-century writer, teacher, and reformer, was born here. 
May 30, 1974. 

GARDNER-PINGREE HOUSE, 128 Essex Street, Salem 
Essex County. 1804-1805, Samuel Mclntire. 

Built for Salem merchant John Gardner. Three-story brick 
townhouse covered by a hip roof. December 30, 1970. 

GARRISON, WILLIAM LLOYD, HOUSE, 125 Highland 
Street, Roxbury, Suffolk County. 1864. 

Garrison, a dedicated abolitionist, advocated an immediate 
end to slavery in his writings and lectures. Lived here frorr, 
1864-1879. June 23, 1965. 

GLOVER, GENERAL JOHN, HOUSE, 11 Glover Street 
Marblehead, Essex County. 18th century. 
From 1 762 to 1 782 this two-story frame home wai 
occupied by Glover, a brigadier general of the Continental 
Army, and a well-to-do merchant. November 28, 1972. 

GODDARD ROCKET LAUNCHING SITE, (Pakachoaj 
Hill), 9th fairway, Pakachoag Golf Course, Pakachoa^ 
Road, Auburn vicinity. Worcester County. 1926. 
Dr. Robert H. Goddard launched the world's first liquic 
propellant rocket here, setting the course for future 
rocketry developments. November 13, 1966. 

GORE PLACE, 52 Gore Street, Waltham, Middlesex 
County. 1805-1806, Jacques Guillaume Legrand. 
Noteworthy example of a five-part Federal house. Elabo\ 
rately carved interior mantels contrast with simpler wooc 
work. December 30, 1970. 

GOUGH, JOHN B., HOUSE, 215 Main Street, Boylston 
Worcester County. 



64 



MASSACHUSETTS 

Gough was a famed temperance orator in the 1850's, and 
himself a reformed drunkard. May 30, 1974. 

GRAY, ASA, HOUSE, 88 Garden Street, Cambridge, 
Middlesex County. 1810. 

Gray was one of America's greatest botanists. His writings 
launched the study of plant geography. January 12, 1965. 

HAMILTON HALL, 9 Cambridge Street, Salem, Essex 
County. 1806-1807, Samuel Mclntire. 

When political differences between Federalists and Republi- 
cans split the townspeople, one faction erected this 
three-story brick building to house their social activities. 
December 30, 1970. 

HANCOCK-CLARKE HOUSE, 35 Hancock Street, Lexing- 
ton, Middlesex County. 1698 added to 1734. 
John Hancock, Revolutionary statesman and signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, lived here from 1 744 to 
1750. July 17, 1971. 

HANCOCK SHAKER VILLAGE, U.S. 20, Hancock Turn- 
pike, 5 miles south of Pittsfield, Berkshire County. 1790- 
1960. 

This community, organized in 1 790 and dissolved in 1 960, 
reached its high point early in the 19th century. Eighteen 
well-preserved buildings remain, including a structure be- 
lieved to be the first round barn built in the United States. 
November 24, 1 968. 

HARDING, CHESTER, HOUSE, 16 Beacon Street, Boston, 

Suffolk County. 1808. 

Harding was one of America's notable portrait painters in 

the four decades before his death in 1866. Occupied this 

four-story brick residence from 1827-1829. December 21, 

1965. 

HASTINGS, OLIVER, HOUSE, 101 Brattle Street, Cam- 
bridge, Middlesex County. 1844-1845. 

Greek Revival home of a Boston merchant, enlivened by 
curved bays, cast-iron verandas, and a hip roof. December 
\30, 1970. 

HEADQUARTERS HOUSE, 55 Beacon Street, Boston, 
'Suffolk County. 1806, Asher Benjamin. 
William H. Prescott did much of his historical writing, 
notable for accuracy and thoroughness, while he lived in 
'this house. December 29, 1 964. 

[HOLMES, OLIVER WENDELL, HOUSE, 868 Hale Street, 
Beverly Farms) Beverly, Essex County. 20th century. 
4 2V2-story Victorian clapboard house, used as a summer 
tome by the Supreme Court Justice. Eloquent minority 
Opinions earned him the title "The Great Dissenter." 
November 28, 1972. 



65 



MASSACHUSETTS 



HOWE, SAMUEL GRIDLEY AND JULIA WARD, HOUSE, 

13 Chestnut Street, Boston, Suffolk County. 

In the year that the Howes moved here that Julia Ward 

Howe wrote "The Battle Hymn of the Republic." Both she 

and her husband were active in abolitionist circles. May 30, 

1974. 

KENNEDY COMPOUND, Irving and Marchant Avenues, 
Hyannisport, Barnstable County. 20th century. 

Six acres of waterfront property, containing several Ken- 
nedy residences. Served as John Kennedy's home base 
during the 1960 Presidential campaign and was his Summer 
White House. May 31, 1973. 

KING'S CHAPEL, Tremont and School Streets, Boston, 
Suffolk County. 1749-1754, Peter Harrison. 

An excellent example of Georgian church architecture in 
the American Colonies. In 1785 the chapel became the first 
Unitarian church in the United States. October 9, 1960. 

LEE, JEREMIAH, HOUSE, Washington Street, Marblehead, 
Essex County. 1768. 

Exemplifies the wealth and position of an 18th-century 
New England merchant. Central stair hall features a richly 
decorated 8-foot wide staircase. October 9, 1960. 

LEXINGTON GREEN, Massachusetts and Hancock Streets, 
Lexington, Middlesex County. 1775. 

On April 19, 1775, a skirmish here between the Minute 
Men and British forces initiated the Revolutionary War. 
January 20, 1961. 

LIBERTY FARM (FOSTER HOUSE), 116 Mower Street, 
Worcester, Worcester County. 

Abigail Kelly and her husband were active in the anti- 
slavery and women's suffrage movements. Withheld taxes 
on Liberty Farm to protest Abigail Kelly's inability to vote. 
May 30, 1974. 

LINCOLN, GENERAL BENJAMIN, HOUSE, 181 North 
Street, Hingham, Plymouth County. 18th-19th centuries. 
Two-story frame dwelling, home of a Major General of the 
Continental Army. November 28, 1972. 

LONG WHARF AND CUSTOMHOUSE BLOCK, foot of 
State Street, Boston, Suffolk County. Wharf, 1710-1721 
Customhouse Block, 1848, Peabody and Stearns. 

Commemorates the mercantile history of Boston, one oj 
America's major ports. Original Long Wharf was the city'i 
busiest pier for many years. Customhouse Block, a massive 
granite structure, was built during Boston's commercia 
zenith. November 13, 1966. 

MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL, Fruit Street 
Boston, Suffolk County. 1818-1823, Charles Bulfinchi 
1844-1846, George Perkins. 



66 



MASSACHUSETTS 

A rare major example of a large, early 19th-century city 
hospital. Nearly doubled in size in the 1840's, the original 
building is used for research. December 30, 1970. 

MASSACHUSETTS HALL, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, 
Harvard University Yard, Cambridge, Middlesex County. 
1718-1720, John Leverett, Benjamin Wadsworth. 
Oldest surviving building of America's oldest institution of 
higher learning, established in 1636. October 9, 1960. 

MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 1154 Boyl- 
ston Street, Boston, Suffolk County. 

Founded in 1 791 and the oldest such society in the United 
States. Collects, preserves, and publishes historical material. 
December 21, 1965. 

MASSACHUSETTS STATEHOUSE, Beacon Hill, Boston, 
Suffolk County. 1789, Charles Bulfinch. 
Center of Massachusetts government since its completion. 
Significant as a monument of Federal architecture. Decem- 
ber 19, 1960. 

MEMORIAL HALL, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Cam- 
bridge and Quincy Streets, Harvard University campus, 
Cambridge, Middlesex County. 1870-1878, William Robert 
Ware and Henry Van Brunt. 

Built as a memorial to Harvard's Civil War dead. Late 
Gothic Revival structure, cruciform in plan. December 30, 
1970. 

MISSION HOUSE, Main Street, Stockbridge, Berkshire 
County. 1739. 

A 2V2-story frame structure, erected by an Indian mis- 
sionary for use as both a home for his bride and a place 
where he could meet with Indian converts. November 24, 
1968. 

MOUNT, THE (EDITH WHARTON ESTATE), south of 
Lenox on U.S. 7, Berkshire County. 20th century. 

Several of the Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist's best works 
were written here, including Ethan Frome, set in a rural 
New England area similar to Lenox. November 11, 1971. 

NANTUCKET HISTORIC DISTRICT, Nantucket Island, 
Nantucket County, c. 1700-1874. 

American whaling industry originated here, reaching its 
economic peak from 1 748 to 1848. A number of houses on 

i Main Street were built by wealthy whale oil merchants 

i during that period. November 13, 1966. 

NEW BEDFORD HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by the 
waterfront, Elm Street, Acushnet Avenue, and Commercial 
Street, New Bedford, Bristol County. 18th and 19th 
| centuries. 
Whaling began here in the 1760's. By the 1840's New Bed- 
ford was the most important American whaling port. 



67 



MASSACHUSETTS 



Wealth produced by the industry is evident in the structures 
in the historic district. November 13, 1966. 

NORFOLK COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 650 High Street, 
Dedham, Norfolk County. 20th century. 
Scene of the 1920 Sacco-Vanzetti trial, symbolic of the 
hysteria aroused by the fear of communism in the 
post-World War I era. November 28, 1972. 

OLD CITY HALL, School and Providence Streets, Boston, 
Suffolk County. 1862-1865, Bryant and Gilman. 

Monumentally scaled four-story granite building, bearing a 
strong resemblance to the Louvre. Most striking interior 
features are the staircases. December 30, 1970. 

OLD DEERFIELD HISTORIC DISTRICT, Deerfield, 
Franklin County, c. 1670. 

Laid out in 1666 and settled a few years later, it was 
attacked and destroyed several times during French and 
Indian raids. An 18th-century outpost of New England's 
northwestern frontier. Now restored to its colonial appear- 
ance. October 9, 1960. 

OLD MANSE, Monument Street, Concord, Middlesex 
County, c. 1765. 

Clapboard dwelling constructed by Ralph Waldo Emerson's 
grandfather. Both Emerson and Nathaniel Hawthorne lived 
here at different times. December 29, 1962. 

OLD SHIP MEETINGHOUSE, Main Street, Hingham, 
Plymouth County. 1681. 

Oldest English colonial house of worship still standing. 
Name derives from the curved timbers supporting the roof 
which resemble an inverted ship's hull. October 9, 1960. 

OLD SOUTH CHURCH IN BOSTON, 645 Boylston Street, 
Boston, Suffolk County. 1874-1875, Cummings and Sears. 
Two-story masonry building designed in a cruciform plan. 
Gable-end windows have elaborate Gothic tracery. Decem- 
ber 30, 1970. 

OLD WEST CHURCH, 131 Cambridge Street, Boston, 
Suffolk County. 1806, Asher Benjamin. 
Square, two-story brick edifice with a stepped-gable roof 
and a projecting porch. Used as a branch of the public 
library from 1896 to 1960. December 30, 1970. 

OLMSTED, FREDERICK LAW, HOUSE, 99 Warren Street, 
Brookline, Norfolk County. 1810. 

Pioneer landscape architect Olmsted developed New York 's \ 
Central Park, planned some 80 other urban parks, and was I 
involved with numerous preservation projects. May 23, 1 
1963. 

ORCHARD HOUSE, Lexington Road, Concord, Middlesex' 
County. Mid-19th century. 



68 



MASSACHUSETTS 

Home of Bronson Alcott, American transcendentalist and 
educator, and his daughter, author Louisa May Alcott, who 
wrote part of Little Women while living here. December 29, 
1962. 

PARKMAN, FRANCIS, HOUSE, 50 Chestnut Street, Bos- 
ton, Suffolk County. 1824. 

Historian Parkman was one of a number of prominent 
people who lived on Beacon Hill in the 19th century. 
Occupied this early Federal house during his most produc- 
tive years. December 29, 1962. 

PARSONAGE, THE (HORATIO ALGER HOUSE), 16 

Pleasant Street, Natick, Middlesex County, c. 1820. 

Alger, a minister and the author of the popular rags-to- 
riches books, spent his summers in this white clapboard 
parsonage. November 11, 1971. 

PEABODY MUSEUM OF SALEM, 161 Essex Street, 
Salem, Essex County. 1825. 

Houses a collection covering New England maritime his- 
tory, Pacific ethnology, and the natural history of Essex 
County. December 21, 1965. 

PEIRCE-NICHOLS HOUSE, 80 Federal Street, Salem, 
Essex County. 1782, Samuel Mclntire. 

First important example of architect Mclntire 's work. 
Interiors illustrate both his early Georgian and later Adam 
styles of decoration. November 24, 1968. 

PIERCE-HICHBORN HOUSE, 29 North Square, Boston, 
Suffolk County. 1680-1710. 

Typical of the many pre-Georgian brick dwellings erected in 
Boston to replace the wooden buildings destroyed in the 
great fire of 1676. November 24, 1968. 

PUTNAM, GENERAL RUFUS, HOUSE, 344 Main Street, 
Rutland, Worcester County. 18th century. 

Putnam was a Revolutionary soldier who helped organize 
settlement of the Northwest Territory and served as United 
States Surveyor-General. November 28, 1972. 

QUINCY MARKET, South Market Street, Boston, Suffolk 
County. 1825-1826, Alexander Parris. 

Built by Josiah Quincy, mayor of Boston and later presi- 
dent of Harvard, to replace Faneuil Hall market. Novem- 
ber 13,1966. 

RED TOP (WILLIAM DEAN HOWELLS HOUSE), 90 

Somerset Street, Belmont, Suffolk County. 1877, McKim, 
Mead and White. 

Howells, author, magazine editor, and influential literary 
critic at the turn of the century, wrote some of his most 
famous novels while residing here. November 11, 1971. 

ROY ALL, ISAAC, HOUSE, 15 George Street, Medford, 



69 



MASSACHUSETTS 



Middlesex County. Mid-1 7th century. 

Represents the Georgian period in the history of New 
England's domestic architecture. House was enlarged several 
times by members of the Roy all family. October 9, 1960. 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, 136 Tremont Street, Boston, 
Suffolk County. 1819-1820, Alexander Parris and Solomon 
Willard. 

Now the cathedral of the Diocese of Boston. Two-story, 
gable-roofed sandstone building, with a temple-front por- 
tico having six Ionic columns. December 30, 1970. 

SEARS, DAVID, HOUSE, 42 Beacon Street, Boston, 
Suffolk County. 1816, Alexander Parris. 
Federal style townhouse built to a monumental scale. Walls 
of the two-story structure are composed of carved granite 
panels. December 30, 1970. 

SEVER HALL, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Harvard Yard, 
Cambridge, Middlesex County. 1878-1880, Henry Hobson 
Richardson. 

Designed in the well-known Romanesque style of architect 
Richardson, who attempted to blend this structure with 
existing Georgian and Federal buildings. December 30, 
1970. 

SHIRLEY-EUSTIS HOUSE, 31-37 Shirley Street, Roxbury. 
Suffolk County. 1747. 

One of the most formal and imposing Georgian houses in 
New England, built by William Shirley, a Royal Governor. 
American forces used it as a barracks and hospital during 
siege of Boston. October 9, 1960. 

SPENCER-PIERCE-LITTLE HOUSE, at end of Little's 
Lane, on the east side of U.S. 1A, Newbury, Essex County. 
17th or 18th century. 

One of the few remaining stone houses built in New 
England during this period. The walls, 2 feet thick, are 
composed of granite, fieldstone, brick, and plaster. No- 
vember 24, 1968. 

STORY, JOSEPH, HOUSE, 26 Winter Street, Salem, Essex 
County. 19th century. 

As a Supreme Court Justice, Story supported national 
supremacy over States rights. Laid the judicial basis of the 
American nation-state. November 7, 1973. 

SUMNER, CHARLES, HOUSE, 20 Hancock Street, Bos- 
ton, Suffolk County. 

Sumner was a very outspoken opponent of slavery and 
instrumental in forming the Republican Party. November 7, 
1973. 

TREMONT STREET SUBWAY, beneath Tremont, Boyl- 
ston, and Washington Streets, Boston, Suffolk County. 
1895-1898. 



70 



MASSACHUSETTS 

Part of the first subway system in North America. Original 
tunnel section of system is still in use. January 29, 1964. 

TRINITY CHURCH, Copley Square, Boston, Suffolk 
County. 1874-1877, Henry Hobson Richardson. 

One of Richardson's best works, done in Romanesque style 
for which he became famous. John La Forge executed 
interior murals and some of the stained glass. December 30, 
1970. 

TUFTS, PETER, HOUSE, 350 Riverside Avenue, Medford, 
Middlesex County. 1675. 

An example of a 1 Ith-century New England brick struc- 
ture, of which only 11 are known to have been built. 
Bricks used in house were made in Medford, a leading 
brickmaking center. November 24, 1968. 

UNITED FIRST PARISH CHURCH (UNITARIAN) OF 
QUINCY, 1266 Hancock Street, Quincy, Norfolk County. 
1827-1828, Alexander Parris. 

Considered the finest existing Greek Revival church in New 
England. Dominant interior feature is the decorative plaster 
dome. December 30, 1970. 

U.S. CUSTOMHOUSE, southwest corner of 2nd and 
Williams Streets, New Bedford, Bristol County. 1834-1836, 
Robert Mills. 

Oblong granite building, covered by a hip roof. Symbolic of 
the era when New Bedford was a major port. December 30, 
1970. 

U.S.S. CONSTITUTION, Boston Naval Shipyard, Charles- 
town, Suffolk County. 1797. 

Known as "Old Ironsides," the "Constitution" was involved 
in sea battles with Barbary pirates and in the War of 1812. 
A square-rigged wooden vessel, 204 feet long. December 19, 
1960. 

UNIVERSITY HALL, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Harvard 

Yard, Cambridge, Middlesex County. 1813-1815. Charles 

Bulfinch. 

Granite-walled, three-story structure, originally used for 

study, dining and worship. December 30, 1970. 

VALE, THE (THEODORE LYMAN ESTATE), Lyman and 
Beaver Streets, Waltham, Middlesex County. 1793-1798, 
Samuel Mclntire. 

Designed as a five-part, frame composition. Enlarged and 
remodeled in 1882. December 30, 1970. 

WALDEN POND, 1.5 miles south of Concord, Middlesex 

County. 

Henry David Thoreau, author and social critic, spent the 

years 1845 to 1847 living here in a simple cabin, later 

recounting his impressions in the book Walden. Site is 

marked with a cairn of rocks. December 29, 1962. 



71 



MASSACHUSETTS / MICHIGAN 

WARD, JOHN, HOUSE, 132 Essex Street, Salem, Essex 
County. 1684. 

A 1 7th-century framehouse which grew and changed 
according to the needs of the owner. Similar to Salem's 
more famous house of Seven Gables. November 24, 1 968. 

WEBSTER, DANIEL, LAW OFFICE, Careswell and Web- 
ster Streets, Marshfield, Plymouth County. 

Webster used this one-room, clapboard building as his 
natural history library and law office. May 30, 1974. 

WHIPPLE, JOHN, HOUSE, 53 S. Main Street, Ipswich, 
Essex County, c. 1640. 

Illustrates the development of the 17th-century house form 
over a number of years. Has three distinct architectural 
sections. October 9, 1 960. 

WHITTIER, JOHN GREENLEAF, HOME, 86 Friend 
Street, Amesbury, Essex County. 1836. 

Whittier, writer, editor, and prominent abolitionist, lived 
and wrote here from 1836 until his death in 1892. 
December 29, 1962. 

WRIGHT'S TAVERN, Lexington Road, opposite the Bury- 
ing Ground, Concord, Middlesex County. 1747. 
Meeting place, in 1774, of the Provincial Congress of 
Massachusetts. Used by both Minute Men and British 
Redcoats for meetings in 1 775. January 20, 1961. 



Michigan 



FAIR LANE (HENRY FORD ESTATE), 4901 Evergreen 
Road, Dearborn, Wayne County. 1915, W. H. Van Tine. 

Ford revolutionized American transportation by mass- 
producing an inexpensive car. The Ford family occupied 
this 56-room house until 1950. November 13, 1966. 

FORT MICHILIMACKINAC, near Mackinac Bridge, at the 

terminus of U.S. 31, Mackinaw City, Cheboygan County. 

1715-1720. 

Erected by the French, the Fort was captured by the 

British during the French and Indian War. Only garrisoned 

British outpost on the Great Lakes during the Revolution. 

October 9, 1960. 

MACKINAC ISLAND, northeast across the Straits of 
Mackinac from Mackinaw City, Mackinac County. 1780. 
American control of the island was secured by the 1814 
Treaty of Ghent. Northern headquarters of Astor's Ameri- 
can Fur Company until the 1840's. October 9, 1960. 

NORTON MOUND GROUP, 2 miles south of Grand Rapids 
on Indian Mound Drive, Kent County, c. 4 B.C.-A.D. 400. 

Well-preserved Hopewell mounds in the western Great 



72 



MICHIGAN / MINNESOTA 

Lakes region. Site was the center of Hopewellian culture in 
that area. December 21, 1965. 

ST. IGNACE MISSION, State and Marquette Streets, 
Marquette Park, St. Ignace, Mackinac County. 1671. 
Pere Jacques Marquette helped to establish a mission here 
which was later moved to the mainland. Marquette was 
buried here in 1677, according to his wishes. October 9, 
1960. 

ST. MARY'S FALLS CANAL, St. Mary's River, Sault Ste. 
Marie, Chippewa County. 1855. 

Construction of the Canal allowed exploitation of the 
resources of the region. Permits passage between Lake 
Superior and Lake Huron. November 13, 1966. 

WINDEMERE (ERNEST HEMINGWAY COTTAGE), be- 
tween the north shore of Walloon Lake and Lake Grove 
Road, Emmet County. 1904-1921. 

Hemingway spent his boyhood summers in this one-story 
frame structure. Began his writing career here, using the 
setting and his boyhood experiences in some of his stories. 
November 24, 1968. 



Minnesota 



FITZGERALD, F. SCOTT, HOUSE (SUMMIT TERRACE), 

599 Summit Avenue, St. Paul, Ramsey County. 1919- 
1920. 

Fitzgerald, spokesman for the Jazz Age, wrote several 
stories in this Victorian residence, including his first 
published novel, This Side of Paradise. November 11, 1971. 

FORT SNELLING, bounded by Minnehaha Park, Missis- 
sippi River, the airport, and Bloomington Road, St. Paul 
vicinity, Hennepin and Dakota Counties. 1820-1824. 

Fourteen stone buildings and two log structures, built on a 
site recommended by Zebulon Pike, became an important 
frontier outpost. Used as a troop training center in the Civil 
War and World Wars I and II. December 19, 1960. 

HILL, JAMES J., HOUSE, 240 Summit Avenue, St. Paul, 
Ramsey County. 1889. 

Known as the u Empire Builder," Hill was a leader in 
American railroad construction from 1878 to 1912. Com- 
bined several lines to form the Great Northern Railroad 
Company. November 5, 1961. 

HULL-RUST-MAHONING OPEN PIT IRON MINE, 3rd 

Avenue East, Hibbing vicinity, St. Louis County. 1895. 

This Mesabi Range mine, the largest in the world, produced 
an immense amount of iron ore, and enabled the United 
States to lead the world in steel output. November 13, 
1966. 



73 



MINNESOTA 

KATHIO SITE, U.S. 169, Mille Lacs-Kathio State Park, 
Vineland, Mille Lacs County, c. 1640. 

Ancestral home of part of the present-day Dakota Indians 
and an important contact site between them and the 
French. July 19, 1964. 

KELLEY, OLIVER H., HOMESTEAD, 2 miles southeast of 
Elk River on U.S. 10, Sherburne County, c. 1860. 

Kelley was the founder of the National Grange movement, 
which sought political solutions to the problems of the 
farmer. The house served as Grange headquarters from 
1868-1870. July 19, 1964. 

LEWIS, SINCLAIR, BOYHOOD HOME, 812 Sinclair Lewis 
Avenue, Sauk Centre, Stearns County. Late 19th century. 
Lewis was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1930. 
His novel Main Street (1920) was partly based on his 
impressions of Sauk Centre. May 23, 1968. 

MAYO CLINIC BUILDINGS (1914 AND 1928), 110 and 
115 2nd Avenue, Rochester, Olmsted County. 1914, 1928. 

Constructed to house the growing medical practice of the 
Mayo brothers. Bringing other doctors in, they set up the 
first private practice of cooperative group medicine in the 
country. August 11, 1969. 

MOUNTAIN IRON MINE, north of the village of Mountain 
Iron, St. Louis County. 1890-1956. 

Opening of the Mine in 1890 revealed that the Mesabi 
Range possessed the world's largest deposits of iron ore, 
making Minnesota the Nation's largest supplier of ore. 
November 24, 1968. 

PILLSBURY A MILL, Main Street and 3rd Avenue, S.E., 
Minneapolis, Hennepin County. 1881. 

Symbolizes the role of Minneapolis as the chief flour 
milling center of the United States from 1880 to 1930. 
Six-story mill is still in use. November 13, 1966. 

ROLVAAG, O. E., HOUSE, 311 Manitou Street, North- 
field, Rice County. 1912. 

Rolvaag, a Norwegian immigrant, wrote the major part of 
his literary works here, and lived in this house until 1931. 
His books dealt with the hardships faced by immigrants. 
August 4, 1969. 

ST. CROIX BOOM SITE, 3 miles north of Stillwater on St. 
Croix River, Washington County. 1856. 

Longest-used of the major log storage areas. Served as the 
terminal point for log drives from 1856 to 1914. November 
13, 1966. 

SOUDAN IRON MINE, Tower-Soudan State Park, Tower 
vicinity, St. Louis County. 1884. 

Soudan Mine contained one of the richest iron deposits in\ 
the Nation, and is the oldest and deepest of the under- 



74 



MINNESOTA / MISSISSIPPI 

ground mines. A number of original buildings survive. 
November 13, 1966. 



Mississippi 



AMMADELLE, 637 North Lamar Street, Oxford, Lafayette 
County. 19th century, Calvert Vaux. 

A spacious red brick house with an irregular floor plan, and 
a prime example of the work of Calvert Vaux, an important 
residential architect. May 30, 1974. 

ARLINGTON, Natchez, Adams County. 1816-1820. 

Situated in an extensive park setting of live oaks and 
azaleas. Epitomizes the architectural qualities for which 
Natchez is famous. May 30, 1974. 

AUBURN, Duncan Park, Natchez, Adams County. 1812. 

Auburn's two-story portico became a model for Natchez 
houses and has come to symbolize all southern plantation 
houses. May 30, 1974. 

BEAUVOIR (JEFFERSON DAVIS SHRINE), 200 W. 

Beach Boulevard, Biloxi, Harrison County, c. 1852. 
Davis, President of the Confederacy, lived here during the 
last 12 years of his life. Completed his book on the rise and 
fall of the Confederacy here. November 7, 1973. 

COMMERCIAL BANK AND BANKER'S HOUSE, Main 
and Canal Streets, Natchez, Adams County, c. 1833. 
The buildings illustrate two expressions of the Greek 
Revival style: in the Ionic temple of the bank facade and 
the Doric columns of the residence. May 30, 1974. 

DUNLEITH, 84 Homochitto Street, Natchez, Adams 
County, c. 1855. 

Only remaining example in Mississippi of a full peripteral 
colonnaded plantation house. Ornamental iron balustrades 
enclose the galleries. December 2, 1974. 

FATHERLAND PLANTATION SITE, 3 miles southeast of 
Natchez, Adams County, c. 1600-1700. 

The Grand Village of the Natchez (Fatherland Plantation 
Site) is mentioned in early 18th-century sources. Numerous 
European artifacts were found at the site burial mound. 
July 19, 1964. 

HOLLY BLUFF SITE, about 2 miles from Holly Bluff on 
secondary road, Yazoo County. Prehistoric. 
Type site for Lake George phase of the Mississippian or 
{temple mound culture. July 19, 1964. 

HOUSE ON ELLICOTT'S HILL, North Canal Street at 
Jefferson Street, Natchez, Adams County. 1800. 



75 



MISSISSIPPI / MISSOURI 

Exemplifies the frontier elegance of the first years of the 
Mississippi Territory. May have been an important hostelry. 
May 30, 1974. 

LONGWOOD, 1.5 miles southeast of Natchez, Adams 
County. 1860-1862, Samuel Sloan. 

Largest and most elaborate octagonal house in the United 
States. Eclectic decorative detail includes both Italianate 
and Moslem motifs. December 16, 1969. 

MELROSE, Melrose Avenue, Natchez, Adams County. 

1845. 

Remarkable for the perfection of its design and the 

integrity of its surroundings. May 30, 1974. 

OLD COURTHOUSE, Court Square, Vicksburg, Warren 
County. 1861, William Weldon. 

A symbol of Confederate resistance in the Vicksburg 
Campaign of 1862-1863. Union Army flag raised here after 
surrender of the city. May 23, 1968. 

ROWAN OAK (WILLIAM FAULKNER HOUSE), Old 

Taylor Road, Oxford, Lafayette County, c. 1840. 
Faulkner, Nobel Prize-winning author, occupied this Greek 
Revival house from 1929 to 1963. May 23, 1968. 

STANTON HALL, High Street, Natchez, Adams County. 

1851-1857. 

Built for a wealthy cotton broker. Palatial proportions and 

Victorian detail represent antebellum opulence. May 30, 

1974. 

WAVERLY, West Point, Clay County. 1840-1852. 

Noteworthy for its great octagonal space, the central 
element in an "H" plan, rising four stories. May 30, 1974. 



Missouri 



ANHEUSER-BUSCH BREWERY, 721 Pestalozzi Street, St. 
Louis City. 1868. 

Pioneered in the use of new methods of production and, 
distribution. Buildings are of brick construction, orna- 
mented on the exterior with gargoyles and other figures. 
November 13, 1966. 

ARROW ROCK, Arrow Rock State Park, Arrow Rock 
Saline County. 1817. 
Starting point for the traders from Old Franklin and Boon' 
Lick who operated on the Sante Fe Trail. May 23, 1963. 

BINGHAM, GEORGE CALEB, HOUSE, Arrow Rock Stat. 

Park, Arrow Rock, Saline County. 1837. 

Artist Bingham's favorite subjects were midwestern rive 



76 



MISSOURI 



boatmen and politicians. Many of his sketches were done in 
this house, his residence from 1837 to 1845. December 21, 
1965. 

BOLDUC, LOUIS, HOUSE, 123 South Main Street, Ste. 
Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County. 1787. 
Built by a prosperous farmer and miner, the house exhibits 
French Canadian and Caribbean architectural influences. 
April 15, 1970. 

CARRINGTON OSAGE VILLAGE SITE, north of Nevada, 
on west edge of Green Valley Prairie, Vernon County. Late 
18th and early 19th centuries. 

The Great Osage Indian settlement at this site was visited 
by Captain Zebulon Pike in 1806. Excavation has un- 
covered aboriginal and European materials. July 19, 1964. 

EADS BRIDGE, spanning the Mississippi River at Wash- 
ington Street, St. Louis City. 1874, James B. Eads. 
First American bridge in which steel was employed in the 
principal members. Arches were erected using the inno- 
vative cantilever method. January 29, 1964. 

FORT OSAGE, north edge of Sibley on the Missouri River, 
Jackson County. 1806. 

First United States Army post west of the Mississippi River. 
One of the most successful of the Government-operated 
trading houses. November 5, 1961. 

GOLDENROD SHOWBOAT, 400 N. Wharf Street, St. 
Louis City. 1909. 

Last remaining example of the modern era of showboating 
that ended in the 1920's. Largest and most elaborately 
decorated of the showboats. December 24, 1967. 

GRAHAM CAVE, 0.5 mile north of Mineola, Montgomery 
County, c. 8000 B.C. 

First site showing development of Eastern Archaic cultures 
within the paleo -Indian time range. January 20, 1961. 

PATEE, JOHN, HOUSE, 12th and Penn Streets, St. Joseph, 
Buchanan County. 1858. 

The Patee House was one of the best-known hotels west of 
the Mississippi. Served as the terminus of the Pony Express. 
November 5, 1961. 

RESEARCH CAVE, Portland vicinity, Callaway County, 
c. 6000 B.C. 

Contains significant prehistoric Indian remains deposited 
over a span of 8000 years. July 19, 1964. 

SAINTE GENEVIEVE HISTORIC DISTRICT, Ste. Gene- 
vieve, Ste. Genevieve County. 1735. 

Old French river town, founded about 1 735. Has retained 
much of the atmosphere of the missionary, fur trading, 
mining, and military outpost culture. October 9, 1960. 



77 



MISSOURI 

SANBORN FIELD AND SOIL EROSION PLOTS, Univer- 
sity of Missouri campus, Columbia, Boone County. 1888. 
Oldest completely organized soil and crop experimental 
field in the United States. July 19, 1964. 

TRUMAN, HARRY S., HISTORIC DISTRICT, North 
Delaware Street area, Independence, Jackson County. 20th 
century. 

Centers about the former President's residence and forms a 
corridor along North Delaware Street linking the house 
with the Truman Library. November 11, 1971. 

TWAIN, MARK, BOYHOOD HOME, 206-208 Hill Street, 
Hannibal, Marion County. 1839. 

Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain) lived here from 1839 to 
1853. His novels Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn reflect his 
experiences during this period. December 29, 1962. 

UNION STATION, 18th and Market Streets, St. Louis City, 
1891-1894, Link and Cameron. 

Exterior of station shows influence of H. H. Richardson. 
Interior decorations include frescoes and art glass windows. 
December 30, 1970. 

UNITED STATES CUSTOMHOUSE AND POST OFFICE, 

Olive and Locust, 8th and 9th Streets, St. Louis City. 

1874-1882, Alfred B. Mullett. 

Built in the French Renaissance Revival style, and designed 

by the Supervising Architect of the United States Treasury. 

Served as a courthouse and customhouse. December 30, 

1970. 

UTZ SITE, 12 miles north of Marshall, adjoining Van Meter 
State Park, Saline County, c. 1673-1728. 

Believed to have been the principal settlement of the 
Missouri Indians from 1673 to 1 728. Pere Marquette's 1673 
map placed "Messourit" Indians here. July 19, 1964. 

WAINWRIGHT BUILDING, 709 Chestnut Street, St. Louis 
City. 1890-1891, Louis H. Sullivan. 

Significant prototype of the modern office building. Sulli- 
van's first commission involving use of complete iron ana 
steel framing. May 23, 1968. 

WATKINS MILL, 6 miles northwest of Excelsior, Clay 
County. 1859. 

One of the best-preserved examples of a mid-1 9th-century 
woolen mill. Business records and rare textile machinery 
have also been saved. November 13, 1966. 

WESTMINSTER COLLEGE GYMNASIUM, Westminstc 
College campus, Fulton, Callaway County. 1928-1929. 

Winston Churchill introduced the term "iron curtain" in c 
speech here in 1946. May 2, 1968. 



78 



Montana 



BANNACK HISTORIC DISTRICT, 22 miles from Dillon 

on secondary road off Mont. 278, Beaverhead County. 

1862. 

First Territorial capital and the site of Montana's first gold 

discovery. Abandoned since 1938, remaining buildings are 

of frame and log construction, typical of a frontier boom 

town. July 4, 1961. 

BUTTE HISTORIC DISTRICT, Butte, Silver Bow County. 
Center of the largest copper-mining region in the world, 
where more than two billion dollars worth of minerals have 
been produced since 1864. Still an active mining commu- 
nity. July 4, 1961. 

CAMP DISAPPOINTMENT, 12 miles northeast of Brown- 
ing on the Blackfeet Reservation, Glacier County, 1806. 

Established by Meriwether Lewis on his return trip from 
the Pacific in 1806. Northernmost point reached by the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition. July 20, 1967. 

FORT BENTON, Fort Benton, Chouteau County. 1859. 

Established as a fur trading center, the Fort prospered with 
the growth of steamboat traffic and an 1862 gold strike, 
but declined with the advent of the railroad. November 5, 
1961. 

GREAT FALLS PORTAGE, southeast of Great Falls at 
junction of U.S. 87, 89, and 91, Cascade County. 1805. 

Lewis and Clark Expedition undertook an 18-mile, 31-day 
portage at Great Falls, one of the most difficult ordeals of 
the trip. May 23, 1966. 

HAGEN SITE, 5 miles southeast of Glendive on secondary 
road, Dawson County. 1600. 

Late prehistoric earth lodge village, believed to represent a 
settlement of Crow Indians. July 19, 1964. 

LEMHI PASS, 12 miles east of Tendoy off Idaho 28, 

Beaverhead County. 1805. 

At this Pass (elevation 8000 feet) the Lewis and Clark 

Expedition first crossed the Continental Divide. October 9, 

1960. 

LOLO TRAIL, parallel to U.S. 12 on ridges of Bitterroot 

Mountains, from Lolo Pass to Weippe, Lolo Hot Springs 

vicinity, Missoula County. 1805. 

Lolo Trail is the 150-odd miles of the Nez Perce Indian 

Buffalo Trail followed by Lewis and Clark in their 1805 

and 1806 crossings of the Bitterroot Mountains. October 9, 

1960. 



79 



MONTANA / NEBRASKA 

PICTOGRAPH CAVE, 7 miles southeast of Billings via U.S. 
87 and secondary road, Indian Cave Park, Yellowstone 
County, c. 2000 B.C. 

One of the key archeological sites used in determining the 
sequence of prehistoric occupation on the northwestern 
Plains. July 19, 1964. 

POMPEY'S PILLAR, west of Pompey's Pillar on U.S. 10, 
Yellowstone County. 1806. 

Massive natural block of sandstone and a well-known 
landmark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Clark's 
signature is carved on its surface. June 23, 1965. 

RUSSELL, CHARLES M., HOUSE AND STUDIO, 
1217-1219 4th Avenue, North, Great Falls, Cascade Coun- 
ty. 1900. 

Russell, a painter of western subjects, occupied this house 
from 1900 to 1926. December 21, 1965. 

THREE FORKS OF THE MISSOURI, northwest of Three 
Forks on the Missouri River, Missouri Headwaters State 
Monument, Gallatin County. 1805. 

Discovered by Captain William Clark, who concluded that 
the Missouri River originated at the point where the Three 
Forks joined. October 9, 1960. 

TRAVELER'S REST, 1 mile south of Lolo near U.S. 93, 
Missoula County. 1805. 

Campsite where Lewis and Clark stopped before crossing 
the Bitterroot Mountains on their 1805 trip west and on 
their return. October 9, 1960. 

VIRGINIA CITY HISTORIC DISTRICT, Wallace Street, 
Virginia City, Madison County. 1863. 

Territorial capital of Montana from 1865 to 18 75 and site 
of one of the greatest gold strikes in the West, in 1863. July 
4, 1961. 



Nebraska 



ASH HOLLOW CAVE, 2 miles south of Lewellen, Garden 
County, c. 2000 B.C.-A.D. 1500. 

A rock shelter, occupied sporadically by prehistoric hunting 
parties for over 3500 years. July 19, 1 964. 

BRYAN, WILLIAM JENNINGS, HOUSE (FAIRVIEW), 
4900 Sumner Street, Lincoln, Lancaster County. 1902. 

Bryan served as Secretary of State under Wilson and 
campaigned unsuccessfully for the Presidency three times. 
Occupied Fairview from 1902 to 1922. November 6, 1963.1 

CATHER, WILLA, HOUSE, southwest corner, 3rd and 



80 



NEBRASKA 

Cedar, Red Cloud, Webster County. 1884-1890. 

Much of author Willa Gather's best known writings deal 
with her life in this house and in Red Cloud, where she 
lived from 1884 to 1890. November 11, 1971. 

COUFAL SITE, 6 miles northwest of Cotesfield on Davis 
Creek, Howard County. 1138. 

Major village of the central Plains tradition. Twenty-two 
houses were excavated and 17,000 specimens collected. 
July 19, 1964. 

FORT ATKINSON, 1 mile east of Fort Calhoun, Washing- 
ton County. 1819. 

Lay on the line of forts guarding the western frontier of the 
1820's. A center for fur trade activity and headquarters for 
the Indian Agency working to keep peace among the 
Missouri tribes. July 4, 1961. 

FORT ROBINSON AND RED CLOUD AGENCY, 2 miles 

west of Crawford on U.S. 20, Dawes and Sioux Counties. 

1871-1874. 

The Fort was established in 1874 to protect the Agency 

from hostile Sioux. Served as a base for several Indian 

campaigns. December 19, 1960. 

GILMORE, WALKER, SITE (STERNS CREEK SITE), 5 

miles southeast of Murray, Cass County. Date unknown. 

A key archeological site for outlining the prehistoric 
cultural stages represented in the central Plains. July 19, 
1964. 

LEARY SITE, 4 miles southeast of Rulo on Nebr. 7, 

Richardson County. 1500-1600. 

Large prehistoric village and burial area of the Oneota 

Culture, first mentioned by Lewis and Clark in 1804. July 

19,1964. 

NORRIS, SENATOR GEORGE WILLIAM, HOUSE, 706 

Norris Avenue, McCook, Red Willow County. 1899. 

Norris, a supporter of Progressive legislation, was largely 
responsible for the establishment of the Tennessee Valley 
Authority. Owned this two-story house from 1899 to 1944. 
May 28, 1967. 

PALMER SITE, 4 miles north and 1 mile west of Palmer on 
Loup River, Howard County, c. 1800-1840. 

A Skidi Pawnee Indian village, first reported by Lewis and 
Clark in 1804. July 19, 1964. 

PIKE PAWNEE VILLAGE SITE (HILL SITE), 4 miles 
southwest of Guide Rock, Webster County. Late 18th and 
early 19th centuries. 

Generally accepted as the Pawnee Village where Lieutenant 
Zebulon Pike caused the American Flag to be raised and 
the Spanish Flag lowered in September 1806. Archeological 
evidence corroborates the identification. July 19, 1964. 



81 



NEBRASKA / NEVADA 

ROBIDOUX PASS, 9 miles west of Gering, Scotts Bluff 
County, c. 1840. 

A natural landmark on the old Oregon Trail. Fell into 
disuse after opening of Mitchell Pass in 1850. January 20, 
1961. 

SCHULTZ SITE, 3 miles northwest of North Loup, Valley 
County, c. 500. 

Only excavated village of the Valley focus, an early Plains 
Woodland culture. July 19, 1964. 

SIGNAL BUTTE, 13 miles west of Gering, Scotts Bluff 
County. 2500 B.C. 

First site of the middle prehistoric period to be excavated 
by archeologists in the central and northern Plains. January 
20, 1961. 



Nevada 



FORT CHURCHILL, U.S. 95A, 8 miles south of U.S. 50, 
Weeks vicinity, Lyon County. 1860. 

Protected the first transcontinental telegraph lines and 
served as the headquarters for Nevada military posts. 
November 5, 1961. 

FORT RUBY, near Hobson on a secondary road, west side 

of Ruby Lake, White Pine County. 1862. 

An important station on the Pony Express and Central 

Overland Stage Line from 1859 to 1869. November 5, 

1961. 

LEONARD ROCKSHELTER, 12 miles south of Lovelock 
off Nev. 59, Pershing County, c. 9000 B.C. 

This site provided information regarding early Indian 
occupations in the Great Basin. January 20, 1961. 

NEWLANDS, SENATOR FRANCIS G., HOME, 7 Elm 
Court, Reno, Washoe County. 1889. 

Newlands, a strong supporter of Federal irrigation pro- 
grams, owned this large frame house from 1889 to 1919. 
May 23, 1963. 

VIRGINIA CITY HISTORIC DISTRICT, Virginia City, 
Storey County. 1860. 

A prototype for all frontier mining boom towns, owing its 
existence to the discovery in 1859 of the Comstock Lode, 
which yielded $300,000,000 in gold and silver. Still 
possesses the atmosphere and appearance of a boom town. 
July 4, 1961. 



82 



New Hampshire 



BARTLETT, JOSIAH, HOUSE, Main Street, Kingston, 
Rockingham County. 1774. 

Bartlett, signer of the Declaration of Independence for New 
Hampshire, Chief Justice, and Governor, lived here from 
1774 to 1795. November 11, 1971. 

FROST, ROBERT, HOMESTEAD, 2 miles southeast of 
Derry on N.H. 28, Rockingham County. 1900-1909. 

Frost, author of eleven volumes of poetry, lived herefrom 
1900 to 1909, writing and farming. May 23, 1968. 

JACKSON, RICHARD, HOUSE, Northwest Street, Ports- 
mouth, Rockingham County. 1664. 

A saltbox house, of Medieval design. Central portion has a 
floor plan common to medieval-style houses. November 24, 
1968. 

JONES, JOHN PAUL, HOUSE, Middle and State Streets, 
Portsmouth, Rockingham County. 1758. 
Boardinghouse in which the naval hero resided from 
1781-1782 while supervising construction of the ship 
"America" for the Continental Navy. November 28, 1972. 

JOY FARM (E.E. CUMMINGS HOUSE), Salter Hill Road, 
Silver Lake, Carroll County. 20th Century. 

A lV2-story white clapboard farmhouse, summer home for 
Cummings, an important 20th-century poet. November 11, 
1971. 

LADD-GILMAN HOUSE, Governors Lane and Water 
Street, Exeter, Rockingham County. 1721. 

Gilman, who was bom in this house, was a Delegate to the 
Constitutional Convention of 1787 and served in the U.S. 
Congress. December 2, 1974. 

LANGDON, GOVERNOR JOHN, MANSION, 143 Pleasant 
Street, Portsmouth, Rockingham County. 1784. 
Langdon was active in New Hampshire's affairs for over 40 
years, a Delegate to the Constitutonal Convention, and 
continued to be active in national politics. The Mansion is 
one of the great Georgian houses in America. December 2, 
1974. 

MACDOWELL COLONY, west of U.S. 202, Peterborough, 
Hillsboro County. 1907. 

Edward MacDowell, first American to become recognized 
as a composer of serious music, lived and worked here. Now 
used as a retreat for writers, composers, and painters. 
December 29, 1 962. 

MACPHEADRIS-WARNER HOUSE, Chapel and Daniel 



83 



NEW HAMPSHIRE / NEW JERSEY 

Streets, Portsmouth, Rockingham County. 1718-1723. 
This brick house exemplifies the large, early Georgian-style 
house once popular in the New England Colonies. October 
9, 1960. 

MOFFATT-LADD HOUSE, 154 Market Street, Ports- 
mouth, Rockingham County, c. 1764. 

Built by ship carpenters as a wedding gift for a wealthy 
merchant's son. Late Georgian, square, three-storied clap- 
board house. November 24, 1968. 

PIERCE, FRANKLIN, HOMESTEAD, 3 miles west of 
Hillsboro on N.H. 31, Hillsboro County. 1804. 
Franklin Pierce, fourteenth President of the United States, 
lived in this house from infancy until his marriage in 1834. 
July 4, 1961. 

SULLIVAN, GENERAL JOHN, HOUSE, 23 New Market 
Road, Durham, Strafford County. 18th century. 
Sullivan, who lived in this two-story framehouse from 
1764 to 1795, was a major general of the Continental 
Army. November 28, 1972. 

THORNTON, MATTHEW, HOUSE, 2 Thornton Street, 
Derry Village, Rockingham County. 1740-1779. 
Two-story saltbox-style framehouse, belonging to a signer 
of the Declaration of Independence for New Hampshire and 
a Member of the Continental Congress. November 11, 
1971. 

WEBSTER, DANIEL, FAMILY HOME (THE ELMS), 
South Main Street, West Franklin, Merrimack County. 
Used by Webster as a home, vacation retreat, and experi- 
mental farm. Gravesites of his parents and four brothers 
and sisters are located here. May 30, 1974. 

WENTWORTH-COOLIDGE MANSION, at the foot of 
Little Harbor Road, off U.S. 1A, 2 miles south of 
Portsmouth, Rockingham County. 1695, 1730, 1750. 

Rambling, H-shaped framehouse, home and headquarters 
of Benning Wentworth, first Royal Governor of New 
Hampshire in 1 741. November 24, 1968. 

WENTWORTH-GARDNER HOUSE, 140 Mechanic Street, 
Portsmouth, Rockingham County. 1760. 

A New England residence noticeably depicting the changes \ 
in Georgian architecture since the early years of the 18th- 
century. November 24, 1968. 



New Jersey 



BOXWOOD HALL (BOUDINOT MANSION), 1073 E. 

Jersey Street, Elizabeth, Union County. 1750. 

Elias Boudinot, President of the Continental Congress in 



84 



NEW JERSEY 

1 782 and a signer of the Constitution and the Treaty of 
Ghent, purchased Boxwood Hall in 1 772. November 28, 
1972. 

CLEVELAND, GROVER, HOME (WESTLAND), 15 

Hodge Road, Princeton, Mercer County. 1854. 

Twice President of the United States, Cleveland retired to 
this stucco-covered stone house in 1897, at the end of his 
second term. June 23, 1965. 

FACTORY, THE, SPEEDWELL VILLAGE, 333 Speedwell 
Avenue, Morristown, Morris and Somerset Counties. 18th 
and 19th centuries. 

Samuel F. B. Morse developed and successfully demon- 
strated the telegraph in the Vail Factory in 1838. The 
Village is the site of a 19th-century ironworks complex, 
including the Vail Homestead, the Factory, and outbuild- 
ings. May 30, 1974. 

HANGAR No. 1, LAKEHURST NAVAL AIR STATION, 

north of Lakehurst on County Route 547, Ocean County. 
1921. 

Home port for the Navy's rigid airships, or dirigibles. Scene 
of the crash of the "Hindenberg" in 1937. May 23, 1968. 

HENRY, JOSEPH, HOUSE, Princeton University campus, 
Princeton, Mercer County. 1837. 

Henry did important research in the field of electromag- 
netism. Chosen as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution in 1846. January 12, 1965. 

HERMITAGE (WALDWIC COTTAGE), 335 N. Franklin 
Turnpike, Hohokus, Bergen County. Mid-18th century; 
1845 (remodeled), William H. Ranlett. 

Only remaining Gothic Revival house definitely attributable 
to William Ranlett. Earlier house was probably a typical 
North Jersey u Dutch" gambr el-rod fed building. August 29, 
1970. 

HOPKINSON, FRANCIS, HOUSE, 101 Farnsworth Ave- 
nue, Bordentown, Burlington County. 1750. 

Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
lived herefrom 1 774 to 1 791. July 17,1971. 

LIBERTY HALL, Morris and North Avenues, Union, 
Union County. 1772-1790. 

Three-part framehouse, occupied from 1773 to 1790 by 
William Livingston, a major political leader during the 
Revolutionary War period and a signer of the Constitution. 
November 28, 1972. 

MAYBURY HILL (JOSEPH HEWES BIRTHPLACE AND 
BOYHOOD HOME), Snowden Lane, Princeton, Mercer 
County. 1730-1750. 

Georgian stone farmhouse, boyhood home of a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence and a Member of the 
Continental Congress. November 11, 1971. 



85 



NEW JERSEY 

MONMOUTH BATTLEFIELD, northwest of Freehold on 
N.J. 522, Monmouth County. 1778. 

Washington's troops attempted to disrupt British General 
Henry Clinton's evacuation from Philadelphia at the battle 
of Monmouth, June 1778. January 20, 1961. 

MORVEN, Stockton Street, Princeton, Mercer County. 
1754-1755. 

A mid-1 8th-century Georgian residence, Morven was the 
home of Richard Stockton, a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence. Became the official residence for New 
Jersey's Governors in 1954. July 17, 1971. 

NASSAU HALL, Princeton University campus, Princeton, 
Mercer County. 1754-1756. 

Oldest building on the campus, used as a barracks and a 
hospital during the Revolution. Scene of the last British 
stand during the Battle of Princeton. October 9, 1960. 

NAST, THOMAS, HOME (VILLA FONT ANA), 
MacCulloch Avenue and Miller Road, Morristown, Morris 
County. 1860-1861. 

Nast lived in this clapboard Victorian period house from 
1873 to 1902, during most of his career as a political 
cartoonist. January 29, 1964. 

OLD BARRACKS, S. Willow Street, Trenton, Mercer 
County, c. 1758. 

Only surviving barracks of five erected by New Jersey's 
Colonial legislature to house troops during the French and 
Indian War. November 28, 1972. 

PALISADES INTERSTATE PARK, on the west bank of 
the Hudson River, Bergen County. 1899. 

Represents an unusual joint effort by New York and New 
Jersey to preserve the scenic beauty of the cliffs on the 
western side of the Hudson River. January 12, 1965. 

PRESIDENT'S HOUSE (MACLEAN HOUSE), Nassau 
Street, Princeton, Mercer County. 1756, Robert Smith. 

Official residence of Princeton's presidents from 1756 until 
1879. Early occupant John Witherspoon was a Delegate to 
the Continental Congress and a signer of the Declaration oj 
Independence. July 17, 1971. 

PRINCETON BATTLEFIELD, Princeton Battlefield State 
Park, Princeton, Mercer County. 1777. 

Washington's victory here in 1777 helped raise the morale 
of the Colonists at a time when the Continental Army had 
suffered a series of defeats. January 20, 1961. 

RED BANK BATTLEFIELD, east bank of the Delaware 
River, at the west end of Hessian Avenue, Gloucester 
County. 1777. 

Fort Mercer, an earthen fort erected to guard the river 
approach to Philadelphia, was successfully defended by the 
Americans in the Battle of Red Bank. Their victory delayed 



86 



NEW JERSEY / NEW MEXICO 

General Howe's capture of the city. November 28, 1 972. 

RINGWOOD MANOR, 3 miles east of Hewitt, Ringwood 
Manor State Park, Passaic County. Furnace, 1742; manor 
house, c. 1815. 

Manor has long been associated with the American iron 
industry. Prominent iron manufacturers directed the opera- 
tion of the Ringwood Furnace in the 18th- and 19 th- 
centuries. November 13, 1966. 

SANDY HOOK LIGHT, Sandy Hook, Monmouth County. 
1764. 

Rising 88 feet above the water, this is the oldest standing 
light tower in the United States. January 29, 1964. 

TRENT, WILLIAM, HOUSE, 539 S. Warren Street, Tren- 
ton, Mercer County. 1719. 

After purchasing large tracts of land in 1 714, Trent had the 
township of "Trent Town" laid out on his property in 
1721. His residence is a restored large brick country house. 
April 15, 1970. 

WASHINGTON CROSSING STATE PARK, between Yard- 
ley and New Hope, on the Delaware River, Yardley vicinity, 
Mercer County. 1776. 

Site of the embarkation of Washington's main force as they 
prepared to cross the Delaware River to raid Trenton, on 
Christmas night, 1 776. January 1, 1961. 

WHITMAN, WALT, HOUSE, 330 Mickle Street, Camden, 
Camden County, c. 1848. 

Whitman, the "Poet of Democracy," occupied this frame 
house from 1884 to 1892, the last eight years of his life. 
December 29, 1962. 



New Mexico 



ABO, 3 miles west of Abo on U.S. 60 and secondary road, 
Torrance County, c. 1300-1670's. 

Abo ruin represents a little-known period in Southwestern 
aboriginal culture history. Occupied from late prehistoric 
through early Spanish times. June 13, 1962. 

ACOMA, 13 miles south of Casa Blanca on N.M. 23, 
Valencia County. 1300. 

Believed to be the oldest continuously occupied settlement 
in the United States. Tribe reassembles here for periodic 
festivals. October 9, 1960. 

ANDERSON BASIN (BLACKWATER DRAW), 12 miles 
south and 6 miles east of Clovis via U.S. 70 and secondary 
roads, Roosevelt County, c. 13,000-8,000 B.C. 

Stratified areas of the site yielded information about the 
nature of man and his environment at the end of the last 
period of glaciation. January 20, 1961. 



87 



NEW MEXICO 

BARRIO DE ANALCO HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounde 
by De Vargas and College Streets, St. Michaels's Dormitory 
San Miguel Chapel, State Parks Building, and Santa F 
River, Santa Fe, Santa Fe County. 1620. 

Unique because it represents a still active, working-cku 
neighborhood of Spanish Colonial heritage. Contains nu 
merous examples of Spanish Pueblo architecture, charac 
terized by the abode construction indigenous to the South 
west. November 24, 1968. 

BIG BEAD MESA, west of Casa Salazar on secondar 
roads, Cibola National Forest, Sandoval County, c. 1700. 

Navajos menaced the pueblos of Laguna and Acoma an 
formed an alliance with the Gila Apaches after moving int 
the Big Bead Mesa region. Became an aggressive power b 
the early 1800's. July 19, 1964. 

BLUMENSCHEIN, ERNEST L., HOUSE, Ledoux Stree 
Taos, Taos County. 18th century. 

Blumenschein was co-founder of the Taos Art Colony i 
1898, making the town an important art center. His adob 
house dates from Spanish times. December 21, 1965. 

CARLSBAD RECLAMATION PROJECT, north of Carl 
bad, Eddy County. 1880's. 

Pecos Valley inhabitants constructed several stone dams i 
the 1880's, an early irrigation project, built by privat 
enterprise. Present expanded program is partially undi 
Federal control. July 19, 1964. 

CARSON, KIT, HOUSE, Kit Carson Avenue, Taos, Tac 
County. 1825. 

Taos was the rendezvous point and winter quarters fc 
many fur trappers. Carson, one of the most famous, owne 
this house from 1843 to 1868. May 23, 1963. 

EL SANTUARIO DE CHIMAYO, south of Truchas i 
Chimayo, Santa Fe County. 1816. 

Well-preserved, unrestored, small adobe pueblo church wit 
original interior paintings. April 15, 1970. 

FOLSOM SITE, 8 miles west of Folsom on the banks o 
Dead Horse Gulch, Union County, c. 13,000-8000 B.C. 

Archeological discoveries at this site confirmed the theor 
about man's early advent into the Americas. January 2C 
1961. 

GLORIETA PASS BATTLEFIELD, 10 miles southeast o 
Santa Fe on U.S. 84-85, San Miguel and Santa Fe Countie; 
1862. 

Battle of Glorieta Pass, March 26-28, 1862, ended 
Confederate invasion of New Mexico that attempted U 
seize a large portion of the Southwest. November 5, 1961 

HAWIKUH, 12 miles southwest of Zuni, Zuni India| 
Reservation, Valencia County. 16th century. 



88 



NEW MEXICO 

Largest of the "Cities of Cibola" and the first pueblo to be 
nsited by Coronado. Excavated 1917-1923. October 9, 
I960. 

LAS TRAMPAS HISTORIC DISTRICT, Las Trampas, Taos 
bounty. 1751. 

The village, a Spanish- American agricultural community, 
preserves its 18th-century heritage in appearance and cul- 
ure. May 28,1967. 

LINCOLN HISTORIC DISTRICT, U.S. 380, Lincoln, Lin- 
;oln County. 1870's and 1880's. 

>ie of the best-preserved of the frontier cow towns. Scene 
if the climax of the Lincoln County War of 1878, a famous 
:attleman's frontier feud. December 19, 1960. 

LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY, Central Ave- 
me, Los Alamos, Los Alamos County. 1943. 

bounded for the purpose of developing the first nuclear 
ission bomb. Continues to be a center for research on 
xuclear weapons and peaceful application of atomic energy. 
December 21,1965. 

vlANUELITO COMPLEX, 6 miles south of Manuelito on 
econdary roads, McKinley County, c. 700-1400. 

Within this valley are sites which were occupied from about 
\.D. 700 to 1400, with even earlier Basketmaker pit house 
ireas. July 19,1 964. 

vlESILLA PLAZA, 2 miles south of Las Cruces on N.Mex. 
>8, Dona Ana County. 1848. 

On July 4, 1854, the American flag was raised over the 
Haza, confirming the Gadsden Purchase Treaty. Town 
etains the flavor of a Mexican village. July 4, 1961. 

>ALACE OF THE GOVERNORS, The Plaza, Santa Fe, 
ianta Fe County. 1610-1612. 

eldest public building in the United States, used as the 
Territorial capitol and Governor's residence during Spanish, 
Mexican and American regimes. October 9, 1960. 

>UYE RUINS, 14 miles west of Espafiola on N.Mex. 5 and 
JO, Santa Clara Indian Reservation, Rio Arriba County. 
:. 1250-1550. 

imong the largest of the prehistoric Indian settlements on 
he Pajarito Plateau, exhibiting a variety of architectural 
vrms and building techniques. May 23, 1966. 

)UARAI, 1 mile south of Punta de Agua on secondary 
oad, Torrance County, c. 1300-1670's. 
\ieblo and mission here commemorate Indian involvement 
n the controversies between church and state in the middle 
MOO's. June 13, 1962. 

IABBIT EARS (CLAYTON COMPLEX), north and west 
»f Clayton, Union County. 



89 



NEW MEXICO 

Double-peaked eminence rising above the level plains. Majo 
landmark for travelers on the Cimarron Cutoff of the Santc 
Fe Trail May 23, 1963. 

RATON PASS, U.S. 85-87, Colorado-New Mexico border 
Raton vicinity, Colfax County. 

From 1861 to 1865 much of the traffic to Santa Fe crossec 
the Pass, as hostile Indians halted traffic over the Cimarrot 
Cutoff route. December 19, 1960. 

SANDIA CAVE, 11 miles east of Bernalillo on N.Mex.44 
Cibola National Forest, Sandoval County, c. 9000-800( 
B.C. 

Excavations here yielded information on three distinc 
prehistoric groups. Represents one of the earliest occupa 
tions of the Americas. January 20, 1961. 

SAN ESTEVAN DEL REY MISSION CHURCH, on N.Mex 

23, Acoma, Valencia County. 1629-1642; 1799-180( 

(repaired). 

Example of Spanish Colonial architecture blending Euro 

peon plan and form with Indian construction and decora 

tive detail. Served the Acoma pueblo. April 15, 1970. 

SAN FRANCISCO DE ASSISI MISSION CHURCH, Thj 
Plaza, Ranchos de Taos, Taos County, c. 1772. 
Example of the New Mexican Spanish Colonial church 
covered with stuccoed adobe. Built with exceptionally 
massive walls. April 15, 1970. 

SAN GABRIEL DE YUNGUE-OUINGE, 4 miles north o 
Espanola via U.S. 64 and secondary roads, Rio Arrib; 
County, c. 1599. 

The ruins of this Tewa Indian pueblo mark the site of tfa 
first Spanish-built capital of New Mexico. Capital wa 
removed to Santa Fe in 1610. July 19, 1964. 

SAN JOSE DE GRACIA CHURCH, north side of the Plaza 
Las Trampas, Taos County. 1760-1776. 

One of the best-preserved Spanish Colonial pueblo churche. 
in the State. Interior features old paintings on the reredo. 
and designs painted under the balcony. April 15, 1970. 

SAN LAZARO, 25 miles south of Santa Fe via N.Mex. 1( 
and secondary road, Santa Fe County. Late prehistoric t< 
c. 1690. 

Two pueblos at this site represent the largest ruin in thi 
Galisteo Basin. Nearby is an early reservoir and mission 
church. July 19,1964. 

SANTA FE PLAZA, Santa Fe, Santa Fe County, c. 161' 

Historically the city's commercial and social center and th 
terminus of the Santa Fe Trail. Palace of the Governors, o\ 
the Plaza, was the site of the flag raising in 1846 
establishing American rule. December 19, 1960. 



90 



NEW MEXICO / NEW YORK 

SETON VILLAGE, 6 miles south of Santa Fe off U.S. 
84-85 and secondary road, Santa Fe County. 1930. 
The Village grew up around the 45-room "castle" built by 
Ernest Seton, a conservationist active in the Boy Scout 
movement. December 21, 1965. 

TAOS PUEBLO, 3 miles north of Taos, Taos County, 
c. 17th century. 

The Pueblo, still active today, was a center of resistance to 
Spanish rule in the 1 7th century. Nearby mission was twice 
destroyed even before the Indian uprising of 1680. October 
9, 1960. 

TRINITY SITE, 25 miles south of U.S. 380 on White Sands 
Missile Range, Bingham vicinity, Socorro County. 1945. 
World's first nuclear device was exploded here in July, 
1945. Now part of the White Sands Missile Range. 
December 21, 1965. 

WAGON MOUND, east of Wagon Mound on U.S. 85, Mora 
County. 

The last great landmark of the high Plains sec Hon of the 
Cimarron Cutoff of the Santa Fe Trail, a guidepost for 
caravans moving westward. May 23, 1963. 

WATROUS (LA JUNTA), U.S. 85, Watrous, Mora County. 
1843, La Junta; 1879, Watrous. 

Point at which the mountain and Cimarron Cutoff routes of 
the Santa Fe Trail divided. Wagon trains organized here 
before entering hostile Indian territory. May 23, 1963. 

ZUNI-CIBOLA COMPLEX, including VILLAGE OF THE 
GREAT KIVAS, Nutria Canyon, 16.5 miles northeast of 
Zuni; YELLOW HOUSE, northeast of junction of highways 
32 and 53, north of Pescado Creek; HAWIKUH, 16 miles 
southwest of Zuni Pueblo; KECHIPBOWA, 3 miles east of 
Hawikuh, Zuni Indian Reservation, Valencia County. Late 
prehistoric to 1539. 

Series of sites containing house ruins, kivas, pictographs, 
ipetroglyphs, trash mounds, and a mission church and 
\convent. An important source of material for ethnological 
studies on the early Zuni, Mogollon, and Anasazi cultures. 
December 2, 1974. 



New York 



ADIRONDACK FOREST PRESERVE, northeastern New 
York State, Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, 
([Herkimer, St. Lawrence, Warren Counties. 1885. 
First State forest preserve in the Nationa, established by 
Vew York in 1885. Includes over two million acres. May 
23,1963. 



91 



NEW YORK 

ANTHONY, SUSAN B., HOUSE, 17 Madison Street, 
Rochester, Monroe County. 1866-1906. 

Active in numerous reform movements, Susan B. Anthony 
was a leader in the women's rights movement in the 19th 
century. Residence is now a museum. June 23, 1965. 

ARDEN (E.H. HARRIMAN ESTATE), N.Y. 17, Harriman, 
Orange County. 1909. 

Harriman, a pre-eminent organizer and builder of railroads 
in the late 19th-early 20th centuries, lived here for a few 
months before his death. November 13, 1966. 

ARTHUR, CHESTER A., HOUSE, 123 Lexington Avenue, 
New York, New York County. 1885-1886. 
Arthur, a supporter of civil service reform, returned to this 
five-story brownstone townhouse after his term as Presi- 
dent ended in 1885. January 12, 1965. 

BENNINGTON BATTLEFIELD, N.Y. 67, on Vermont 
line, Walloomsac vicinity, Rensselaer County. 1777 . 
The American militia's victory at the battle of Bennington 
contributed significantly to the defeat of Burgoyne's army 
at Saratoga. January 20, 1961. 

BOUGHTON HILL, 1.25 miles south of Victor, Ontario 
County, c. 1675-1687. 

Site of Gannagaro, the "great town" of the Seneca Indians, 
the westernmost of the five-nation League of the Iroquois. 
July 19, 1964. 

BRONCK HOUSE, 2 miles west of Coxsackie on the west 
side of U.S. 9W, Green County. 1663, 1682, 1738. 
Illustrates the architectural development of Dutch Colonial 
dwellings. Original house was enlarged twice. December 24, 
1967. 

BROOKLYN BRIDGE, connecting the boroughs of Man- 
hattan and Brooklyn across the East River, Brooklyn, Kings 
County. 1883, John A. and Washington A. Roebling. 

One of the world's first wire cable suspension bridges. 
Established a number of engineering precedents in bridge 
building. January 29, 1964. 

BROOKLYN HEIGHTS HISTORIC DISTRICT, Borough 
of Brooklyn, bounded by Atlantic Avenue, Court and 
Fulton Streets, and the East River. Kings County. 19th 
century. 

Leading New York City residential district in the 19th 
century. Buildings reflect the architectural styles of the^ 
Victorian era. January 12, 1965. 

BURROUGHS, JOHN, CABIN (SLABSIDES), just west o 
West Park, Ulster County. 1895. 

Burrough's summer residence and retreat. Called "Slab 
sides" because of its bark-covered siding. November 24 
1968. 



92 



NEW YORK 



BURROUGHS, JOHN, HOME (WOODCHUCK LODGE), 2 

miles from Roxbury, Delaware County. 1908. 

Scientist and nature writer, Burroughs used this summer 

retreat for working and entertaining friends. December 29, 

1962. 

BURROUGHS, JOHN, RIVERBY STUDY, between N.Y. 
9W and the Hudson River, West Park, Ulster County. 1881. 
Burroughs, nature essayist and conservationist, used only 
this studio for writing until 1895. November 24, 1968. 

CARNEGIE, ANDREW, MANSION, 2 E. 91st Street, New 
York, New York County. 1901, Babb, Cook, and Willard. 
Carnegie, steel industrialist and philanthropist, owned this 
64-room brick mansion after his retirement in 1901. 
November 13, 1966. 

CARNEGIE HALL, 7th Avenue, 56th to 57th Streets, New 
York, New York County. 1891, William B. Tuthill. 

Named for principal benefactor Andrew Carnegie, the Hall 
has been the scene of performances by major musical artists 
and the home of the New York Philharmonic from 
1926-1936. December 29, 1962. 

CENTRAL PARK, bounded by Central Park South, 5th 
Avenue, Central Park West, and 110th Street, New York, 
New York County. 1859-1876, Frederick Law Olmsted 
and Calvert Vaux. 

Development of the Park gave impetus to the Nation's 
urban park movement. Recognized as an outstanding 
example of the art of landscape architecture. May 23, 1963. 

CHURCH, FREDERIC E., HOUSE (OLANA), Church Hill, 
east end of Rip Van Winkle Bridge, Columbia County. 
1874, Frederic Church and Calvert Vaux. 

Olana, overlooking the Hudson, is a combination of Persian, 
Moorish, Italian, and East Indian styles. Reflects the 
extensive traveling done by landscape artist Church. June 
22, 1965. 

CITY HALL, Broadway and Chambers Street, New York, 
New York County. 1803-1811, Joseph Mangin and John 
McComb, Jr. 

Center for administration of Nation's largest city. French 
architect Mangin gave building a strong Louis XVI char- 
acter. December 19, 1960. 

CLERMONT, Clermont State Park, Germantown, Colum- 
bia County. 18th and 19th centuries. 

Originally a 13,000-acre estate owned by Robert Living- 
ston, Delegate to the Continental Congress and first Secre- 
tary of Foreign Affairs. Present house constructed after 
1777. November 28, 1972. 

COLE, THOMAS, HOUSE, 218 Spring Street, Catskill, 
Greene County. 1812-1814. 



93 



NEW YORK 

Cole, a 19th-century landscape artist, was associated with 
the Hudson River School of painting. June 23, 1965. 

CONFERENCE HOUSE, Hylan Boulevard, Tottenville, 
Staten Island, Richmond County. 1680. 
Scene of a 1776 meeting between Lord Howe and a com- 
mittee of the Continental Congress. The British Admiral 
offered amnesty in exchange for withdrawal of the Decla- 
ration of Independence. May 23, 1966. 

COOPER UNION, Cooper Square, 7th Street and 4th 
Avenue, New York, New York County. 1850. 
An early educational center and the scene of a speech by 
Abraham Lincoln in 1860 concerning the slavery issue. July 
4, 1961. 

DELAWARE AND HUDSON CANAL, Orange, Sullivan, 
and Ulster Counties. 1828. 

Main waterway connecting the coalfields of Pennsylvania 
with the furnaces of New York. Growth of railroads led to 
canal's demise after 1899. November 24, 1968. 

DE WINT HOUSE, Livingston Avenue and Oak Tree 
Road, Tappan, Rockland County. 1700. 

General George Washington stayed at this Dutch Colonial 
house four times during the Revolution. May 23, 1966. 

DUTCH REFORMED (SLEEPY HOLLOW) CHURCH, 
north edge of Tarrytown on U.S. 9, Westchester County, 
c. 1700. 

Built of rubblestone, the Church is a reminder of the Dutch 
influence in Colonial America. Author Washington Irving 
is buried here. November 5, 1961. 

DYCKMAN HOUSE, 4881 Broadway, New York, New 
York County. 1783. 

Only 18th-century farmhouse extant on Manhattan Island. 
Flemish Colonial style, built with fieldstone, brick, and 
clapboard. December 24, 1967. 

EASTMAN, GEORGE, HOUSE, 900 East Avenue, Roches- 
ter, Monroe County. 1905, J. Foster Warner. 

Eastman made photography a popular pastime. Developed a 
simple camera in 1888 and marketed first roll film. 
November 13, 1966. 

ERIE CANAL, 6 miles west of Amsterdam on N.Y. 5S, 
Montgomery County. 1825. 

Opened the Old Northwest to settlement and gave western 
agriculture access to eastern markets. A remarkable engi- 
neering feat for the period. October 9, 1960. 

FILLMORE, MILLARD, HOUSE, 24 Shearer Avenue, East 
Aurora, Erie County. 1826. 

Only remaining residence of Fillmore, thirteenth President 
of the United States. Resided here from 1826 to 1830. Ma^ 
30, 1974. 



94 



NEW YORK 

FLOYD, GENERAL WILLIAM, HOUSE, west side of 
Main Street, Westernville, Oneida County. 1803. 

Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
occupied this Georgian house until his death in 1821. July 
17, 1971. 

FORT CRAILO, south of Columbia Street on Riverside 
Street, Rensselaer, Rensselaer County, c. 1700. 
Brick manor house located on the former Van Rensselaer 
estate, the first and only successful proprietorship estab- 
lished by the Dutch West India Company in 1630. 
November 5, 1961. 

FORT CROWN POINT, Crown Point Reservation, west of 
the south end of the Lake Champlain Bridge and N.Y. 8, 
Crown Point vicinity, Essex County. 1760. 
Good architectural and archeological example of 18th- 
century military engineering. Played a minor role in the 
Revolution as an outpost of Fort Ticonderoga. November 
24,1968. 

FORT JOHNSON, junction of N.Y. 5 and 67, Fort 
Johnson, Montgomery County, c. 1749. 

Example of a vernacular Georgian house built at the 
frontier of the Middle Colonies. Home of Sir William 
Johnson, land agent, military leader, Indian negotiator. 
November 28, 1972. 

FORT KLOCK, 2 miles east of St. Johnsville on N.Y. 5, 
Montgomery County. 18th century. 

One-story stone structure, a rare example of a mid-1 8th- 
century fur trading post and fortified stone house. Used as 
a place of refuge by settlers during the Revolutionary War. 
November 28, 1972. 

FORT MONTGOMERY, north of Bear Maountain on the 
west bank of the Hudson River, Orange County. 1777. 
British attacked Fort in 1777 in an effort to relieve 
Burgoyne's army. Extensive ruins remain. November 28, 
1972. 

FORT ST. FREDERIC, junction of N.Y. 8 and 9N, Crown 
Point, Essex County. 1731. 

Keystone of France's defense of Canada for almost 25 
years. Abandoned during the French and Indian War. 
October 9, 1960. 

FORT TICONDEROGA, 2.5 miles south of Ticonderoga 
on N.Y. 22, Essex County. 1755-1757. 
The key to both Canada and the Hudson River Valley in 
\the 18th century. The "Green Mountain Boys" under 
Sthan Allen captured the Fort from the British in 1775. 
October 9, 1960. 

FOUNDER'S HALL (THE ROCKEFELLER INSTITUTE 
7 OR MEDICAL RESEARCH), 66th Street and York 
Wenue, New York, New York County. 1906. 



95 



NEW YORK 

Founded by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. in 1901 to conduct 
research into the treatment and prevention of disease. May 
30,1974. 

GOULD, JAY, ESTATE (LYNDHURST), 635 S. Broad- 
way, Tarry town, Westchester County. 1838, Alexander 
Jackson Davis, Ithiel Town. 

Gould was a post-Civil War financier in an era of unre- 
strained capitalism. Lyndhurst derives its architectural 
significance from its Gothic Revival style. November 13, 
1966. 

HASBROUCK, JEAN, HOUSE, Huguenot Street, opposite 
junction with North Street, New Paltz, Ulster County. 
1694. 

Example of a 1 Ith-century Flemish Colonial stone struc- 
ture. Used as both a store and a residence. December 24, 
1967. 

HENRY STREET SETTLEMENT AND NEIGHBORHOOD 
PLAYHOUSE, 263-267 Henry Street and 466 Grand 
Street, New York, New York County. 1895. 
Lillian Wald, suffragist and pacifist, lived and worked here 
for 40 years. Established a city-wide visiting nurse service 
early in the 20th century. May 30, 1974. 

HISTORIC TRACK, Main Street, Goshen, Orange County. 
1854. 

One of the older active harness racing courses in the United 
States. Races first held in the 19th century on what is now 
Goshen's main street. May 23, 1966. 

HOLLAND LAND OFFICE, W. Main Street, Batavia, 
Genesee County. 1815. 

Holland Land Company, created by Dutch investors in the 
1790's, helped develop western New York and northern 
Pennsylvania in the late 18th century. October 9, 1 960. 

HOUGH, FRANKLIN B., HOUSE, Collins Street, Lowville, 
Lewis County, c. 1861. 

Dr. Hough, the father of American forestry, was the first 
Federal forestry official and the author of the first 
American book on forestry. May 23, 1963. 

HUGUENOT STREET HISTORIC DISTRICT, Huguenot, 
Street, New Paltz, Ulster County. 17th and 18th centuries. 
Five stone houses reflect the 1 7th- and 1 8th-century 
Walloon and French Huguenot culture of the settlers. The 
Dutch Colonial architecture of the buildings is charac-\ 
teristic of this area. October 9, 1960. 

HURLEY HISTORIC DISTRICT, Hurley Street, Hurleyj 

Mountain Road, and Schoonmaker Lane, Hurley, Ulster 

County. 17th and 18th centuries. 

The district's ten stone houses illustrate the Dutch heritage^ 

of the town, originally called Nieuw Dorp. November 5,\ 

1961. 



96 



NEW YORK 

JOHNSON HALL, Hall Street, Johnstown, Fulton County. 
1763. 

Home of Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs and a frontier leader in pre- Revolutionary New 
York. October 9, 1960. 

KING MANOR, 150th Street and Jamaica Avenue, 
Jamaica, Queens County. 

Rufus King, member of the Continental Congress, signer 
of the Constitution, United States Senator, and Federalist 
Presidential candidate, lived in this Colonial mansion for 
22 years. December 2, 1974. 

KNOX HEADQUARTERS, Quassaick Avenue and Forge 
Hill, Vails Gate, Orange County. 1754. 

Located in an area of key importance during the Revolu- 
tion, the house was occupied on four occasions by Major 
General Henry Knox. Built by an early settler on the 
Hudson River. November 28, 1972. 

LAMOKA, 2 miles west of Tyrone at northern edge of 
Lamoka Lake, Schuyler County, c. 3500 B.C. 

Site provided first clear evidence of an Archaic hunting and 
gathering culture in Northeastern United States. January 
20, 1961. 

LOCUST GROVE (SAMUEL F. B. MORSE HOUSE), 370 

South Street, Poughkeepsie, Dutchess County. 1830. 
Morse purchased this house in 1847, three years after his 
successful transmission by wire of a message from Washing- 
ton to Baltimore. Used as a summer residence, it was en- 
larged into the present octagon-shaped structure. January 
29,1964. 

MILLER, LEWIS, COTTAGE, CHAUTAUQUA INSTITU- 
TION, N.Y. 17, Chautauqua, Chautauqua County. 1875. 
Chautauqua provided a year-round program of adult educa- 
tion. Miller, a co-founder, entertained prominent visitors in 
his Swiss-chalet style cottage. March 1, 1966. 

MORAN, THOMAS, HOUSE, Main Street, East Hampton, 

Long Island, Suffolk County. 1884. 

Moran produced notable paintings of the West, two of 

which hang in the United States Capitol. December 21, 

1965. 

MORGAN, PIERPONT, LIBRARY, 33 E. 36th Street, New 
York, New York County. 1906, McKim, Mead, and White. 
Morgan, an important financier, organized U.S. Steel and 
was influential in the railroad industry. Renaissance-style 
library contains literary and artistic collections. November 
13, 1966. 

MORRILL HALL, Cornell University campus, Ithaca, 
Tompkins County. 1866-1868, Henry W. Wilcox. 

Named for Justin S. Morrill, author of the Morrill Land 
Grant Act of 1862. Cornell was established to prepare 



97 



NEW YORK 

students for useful careers in the post-Civil War era. 
December 21, 1965. 

MORRIS-JUMEL MANSION, 160th Street and Edgecombe 
Avenue, New York, New York County. 1765. 
Major surviving landmark of the Battle of Harlem Heights in 
1776. Briefly served as General Washington's headquarters. 
January 20, 1961. 

MOUNT LEBANON SHAKER SOCIETY, U.S. 20, New 
Lebanon, Columbia County. 1787. 

First and most economically successful of the 19 Shaker 
communities in the country. Meetinghouse, dormitory, 
tannery, smithy, and chair factory survive. June 23, 1965. 

MOUNT, WILLIAM SYDNEY, HOUSE, Gould Road and 
N.Y. 25, Stony Brook, Suffolk County. 1725. 
Mount, a 1 9th-century artist, produced most of his genre 
paintings in this large framehouse. December 21, 1965. 

NEWTON BATTLEFIELD, 6 miles southeast of Elmira on 
N.Y. 17, Chemung County. 1779. 

Scene of the battle between Major General John Sullivan 
and a combined force of Mohawk Indians and British and 
Tory soldiers in 1 779. November 28, 1972. 

NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDENS, Southern and 
Bedford Park Boulevards, The Bronx, Bronx County. 1896. 

Leading botanical garden, with an extensive research 
program. Includes a 40-acre virgin hemlock forest. May 28, 
1967. 

NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY, 5th Avenue and 42nd 

Street, New York, New York County. 1911, Carrere and 

Hastings. 

A major center for study and research in the United States. 

Possesses an extensive manuscript and rare book collection. 

December 21, 1965. 

NIAGARA RESERVATION, Niagara Falls, Niagara 
County. 1885. 

Provides a view of the Falls from a non-commercial area. 
Includes an observation tower and paths. May 23, 1 963. 

OLD BLENHEIM BRIDGE, N.Y. 30 over Schoharie Creek, | 
North Blenheim, Schoharie County. 1855. 
One of the longest single-span wooden covered bridges in] 
the world (232 feet). In use until 1932. January 29, 1964.* 

OLD FORT NIAGARA, north of Youngstown on N.Y. 18,, 
Niagara County. 1678, 1725-1726. 

Strategic site made control of the Fort important to] 
France, England, and the Iroquois Confederation, as well as' 
to the United States. October 9, 1960. 



98 






NEW YORK 

OLD HOUSE, THE, N.Y. 25, Cutchogue, Suffolk County. 
1649. 

Example of English Colonial domestic architecture. Con- 
struction details reflect the work of a master builder. 
November 5, 1961. 

OLD MERCHANT'S HOUSE, 29 E. 4th Street, New 
York, New York County. 1832. 

Owned by a prosperous urban merchant. Three-story brick 
townhouse, representative of transition from Federal to 
Greek Revival period. June 23, 1965. 

OLD QUAKER MEETINGHOUSE, south side of Northern 

Boulevard, Flushing, Queens County. 1695. 

Only surviving example in the State of a typical 1 7th- 

century ecclesiastical frame building. Used as a prison and 

hospital by the British during Revolution. December 24, 

1967. 

ONEIDA COMMUNITY MANSION HOUSE, Sherrill Road, 
Oneida, Madison County. 1860. 

Oneida (founded 1848) was one of the 19th-century 
communitarian experiments. Flourished until 1879. Large 
brick mansion is essentially unchanged. June 23, 1 965. 

ORISKANY BATTLEFIELD, 5 miles east of Rome on 
N.Y. 69, Oneida County. 1777. 

Site of battle between American militiamen attempting to 
relieve Fort Stanwix and a combined force of Loyalists and 
Indians. November 23, 1962. 

OWL'S NEST (EDWARD EGGLESTON ESTATE), N.Y. 
9L, Lake George, Joshua's Rock, Warren County. Late 19th 
century. 

Eggleston, one of America's earliest realistic novelists, built 
first a library and then a stone house on this estate. 
November 11, 1971. 

PAINE, THOMAS, COTTAGE, 20 Sicard Avenue, New 
Rochelle, Westchester County. 18th-19th centuries. 

Paine, propagandist for the Revolutionary War and author 
of Common Sense, occupied this saltbox cottage from 
1802 until 1806. Buried here in 1809. November 28, 1972. 

PALISADES INTERSTATE PARK, on the west bank of 
the Hudson River, Orange and Rockland Counties. 1899. 

Represents an unusual effort by New York and New Jersey 
to preserve the scenic beauty of the cliffs on the lower 
western side of the Hudson River. January 12, 1965. 

PHILIPSBURG MANOR, 381 Bellwood Avenue, Upper 
Mills, Westchester County, c. 1683. 

Stone manor house, an example of country architecture in 
the Dutch settlement of the lower Hudson River Valley. 
November 5, 1961. 



99 



NEW YORK 

PHILIPSE MANOR HALL, Warburton Avenue and Dock 
Street, Yonkers, Westchester County, c. 1700. 

Served as the social and administrative center of the Manor 
of Philip sburg, which extended 20 miles along the Hudson 
River. Notable example of early Georgian architecture. 
November 5, 1961. 

PLATTSBURGH BAY, Cumberland Bay, east of Pitts- 
burgh, Clinton County. 1814. 

American naval victory here in the War of 1812 resulted in 
the destruction of the British fleet on Lake Champlain. 
Compelled invading troops to withdraw to Canada. Decem- 
ber 19, 1960. 

PLAYERS, THE, 16 Gramercy Park, New York, New York 
County. 1888, Stanford White. 

Originally the home of Edwin Booth, founder and first 
president of the Players Club. Houses collection of material 
pertaining to the theater. December 29, 1962. 

PLYMOUTH CHURCH OF THE PILGRIMS, 75 Hicks 
Street, Brooklyn, Kings County. 1849. 

Henry Ward Beecher, noted abolitionist and Plymouth 
Church minister, made the Church a center of antislavery 
sentiment. July 4, 1961. 

PUPIN PHYSICS LABORATORIES, COLUMBIA UNI- 
VERSITY, Broadway and 120th Street, New York, New 
York County. 1939. 

Initial experiments on the nuclear fission of uranium were 
conducted here by Enrico Fermi. Uranium atom split here 
for the first time in 1939. December 21, 1965. 

QUARTERS A (MATTHEW C. PERRY HOUSE), Brook- 
lyn, Kings County. 1806. 

As Commander of the Naval Yard from 1841 to 1843, 
Perry occupied Quarters A, residence of the Yard's com- 
manding officers since its erection in 1806. Perry's mission 
to Japan in 1854 opened that country to Western trade. 
May 30, 1974. 

ROOT, ELIHU, HOUSE, 101 College Hill Road, Clinton, 
Oneida County. 19th-20th centuries. 

Secretary of War under two Presidents and Secretary of 
State under Theodore Roosevelt, Root bought this Federal- 
style house in 1893. Served as his permament home 
throughout his government service. November 28, 1972. 

ST. PAUL'S CHAPEL, Broadway, between Fulton and 
Vesey Streets, New York, New York County. 1764-1766, 
Thomas McBean; 1794, James C. Lawrence. 

Sole surviving church of New York City's colonial era. 
Washington came here for a special service after his inaugu- 
ration in 1 789. October 9, 1960. 

SCHUYLER MANSION, Clinton and Schuyler Streets, 
Albany, Albany County. 1761-1762. 



100 



NEW YORK 

Schuyler was a major general in the Revolutionary War and 
a Member of the Second Continental Congress. House 
contains a highly ornamented center hall stairway and first 
floor paneling. December 24, 1967. 

SCOTT, GENERAL WINFIELD, HOUSE, 24 West 12th 
Street, New York, New York County. 1851-1852. 
Scott, victorious general in the Mexican War and Presiden- 
tial candidate in 1852, bought this brownstone in 1853. 
November 7, 1973. 

SEWARD, WILLIAM H., HOUSE, 33 South Street, Au- 
burn, Cayuga County. 1816. 

Seward, Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, negotiated 
the purchase of Alaska. Occupied this house from 1824 to 
1872. January 29, 1964. 

SMITH, ALFRED E., HOUSE, 25 Oliver Street, New York, 
New York County. Late 19th-20th centuries. 
Three-story Victorian brick rowhouse, home of New 
York's Governor and 1928 Presidential candidate, from 
1907 to 1923. November 28, 1972. 

SOUSA, JOHN PHILIP, HOUSE, 14 Hicks Lane, Sands 
Point, Port Washington, Nassau County, c. 1907. 

Sousa, a band director and composer, was best known for 
his marches, including "The Stars and Stripes Forever." 
Lived herefrom 1910 to 1932. May 23, 1966. 

SPRINGSIDE (MATTHEW VASSAR HOUSE), Academy 
and Livingston Streets, Poughkeepsie, Dutchess County. 
1850-1852, Andrew Jackson Downing. 

Downing, first American landscape architect, laid out 
Vassar's country estate and designed the existing Gothic 
Revival cottage. August 11, 1969. 

STANTON, ELIZABETH CADY, HOUSE, 32 Washington 
Street, Seneca Falls, Seneca County. 1846. 

Stanton, a leader in the women's rights movement, lived 
here at the time of the Women's Rights Convention in 
Seneca Falls in 1848, which she addressed. June 23, 1965. 

STEEPLETOP (EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY HOUSE), 

Austerlitz, Columbia County. 20th century. 

Millay was a leader in the Bohemian culture movement in 
j the 1920's and an important literary figure. Purchased the 
two-story clapboard house in 1925. November 11, 1971. 

STONY POINT BATTLEFIELD, north of Stony Point on 
U.S. 9W and 202, Rockland County. 1779. 

Victory at Stony Point, under "Mad Anthony" Wayne, 
insured General Washington's control of the Hudson River 
and West Point. January 20, 1961. 

SUNNYSIDE (WASHINGTON IRVING HOUSE), Sunny- 
side Lane, Tarrytown vicinity, Westchester County, 
c. 1780; 1836-1847 (remodeled). 



101 



NEW YORK 

This stone house, purchased by writer Washington Irving in 
1835, was his home for 25 years. The author is best 
remembered for his tales of the Hudson River Dutch 
settlements. December 29, 1962. 

TUBMAN, HARRIET, HOME FOR THE AGED, 180-182 

South Street, Auburn, Cayuga County. 

Established in 1908 for aged and indigent Negroes by the 

most famous "conductor" on the Underground Railroad. 

Tubman led more than 300 slaves to freedom. May 30, 

1974. 

UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY, N.Y. 218, West 

Point, Orange County. 1778. 

Training center for Army officers since 1802. Benedict 

Arnold commanded the post during the Revolutionary War 

and attempted to betray it to the British. December 19, 

1960. 

VALCOUR BAY, 7 miles south of Pittsburgh on the west 
shore of Lake Champlain, Clinton County. 1776. 

Presence of American fleet here in 1 776 delayed the British 
and allowed an American victory at Saratoga a year later, a 
turning point in the War. January 1, 1961. 

VAN ALEN, HOUSE, N.Y. 9H, 2.1 miles south of U.S. 9, 
Kinderhook vicinity, Columbia County. 1737-1750. 

Rectangular brick building with sharply pitched roof A 
type of Dutch Colonial brick house built in the State's 
northern counties in the 18th century. December 24, 1967. 

VAN CORTLANDT HOUSE, Van Cortlandt Park at 
242nd Street, The Bronx, Bronx County. 1748-1749. 

Early Georgian country house of fieldstone. Paneling in 
principal rooms is particularly notable. December 24, 1967. 

VAN CORTLANDT MANOR, U.S. 9, north of intersection 
with U.S. 9A, Croton-on-Hudson, Westchester County. 
Begun c. 1650. 

Later enlargement made it one of the most authentic sur- 
vivals of the 18th-century Dutch-English manorial system 
in the Hudson River Valley. November 5, 1961. 

VOORLEZER'S HOUSE, THE, Arthur Kill Road, opposite 
Center Street, Staten Island, Richmond County. 1690. 
Important relic of 1 7th-century Dutch settlement in New 
York. Is the oldest known elementary school building in 
the United States. November 5, 1961. 

WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS, Liberty and Wash- 
ington Streets, Newburgh, Orange County. 1750. 
Dutch Colonial fieldstone residence. Used by Washington 
from April 1, 1782 to August 19, 1783. January 20, 1961. 

WATERVLIET ARSENAL, S. Broadway, Watervliet, Al-| 
bany County. 1813. 



102 



NEW YORK / NORTH CAROLINA 

Arsenal's busiest years were during Mexican and Civil Wars. 
Became the Government's cannon factory in 1889, produc- 
ing sea-coast defense guns. November 13, 1966. 

WATSON, ELK AN AH, HOUSE, 3 miles east of U.S. 9, Port 
Kent, Essex County. 1828. 

Watson was the originator of the agricultural fair and 
supported the creation of National Board of Agriculture. 
July 19, 1964. 

WOOD, JETHRO, HOUSE, N.Y. 34B, Poplar Ridge, 
Cayuga County. Date unknown. 

Wood patented the first successful iron plow in 1819. 
Two-story clapboard house is still used as a residence. July 
19, 1964. 

WOOLWORTH BUILDING, 233 Broadway, New York, 
New York County. 1913, Cass Gilbert. 

Built as corporate headquarters for the variety store chain, 
it was at completion the world's tallest edifice, 792 feet. 
November 13, 1966. 

WYCKOFF HOUSE, 5902 Canarsie Lane, Brooklyn, Kings 
County. 1639. 

Superintendent of Peter Stuyvesant's estate, Wyckoff oc- 
cupied a Flemish Colonial frame dwelling, an architectural 
style widely used by Dutch settlers on Long Island. 
December 24, 1967. 



North Carolina 



BILTMORE ESTATE, Biltmore Plaza, Asheville, Buncombe 
County. 1888, Frederick Law Olmsted. 
Profitable forest management was first practiced here in 
1892. Owner George W. Vanderbilt set up the Biltmore 
Forest School in 1898, the first of its kind in the United 
States. May 23, 1963. 

CHOWAN COUNTY COURTHOUSE, E. King Street, Eden- 
ton, Chowan County. 1767. 

Edenton was the first permanent colonial settlement in 
North Carolina. Present courthouse replaced an earlier one 
completed in 1 719. April 15, 1970. 

CUPOLA HOUSE, 408 S. Broad Street, Edenton, Chowan 
County, c. 1725, 1750's (remodeled). 

Rare example of a Southern colonial house having a 
Jacobean second-story overhang. Roof is crowned by an 
octagonal wood cupola. April 15, 1970. 

DUKE HOMESTEAD AND TOBACCO FACTORY, 0.5 

mile north of Durham on Guess Road and east on N.C. 
1025, Durham County. 1851. 



103 



NORTH CAROLINA 

In 1890 Washington Duke organized the American Tobacco 
Company, preeminent in its time. Duke's framehouse and 
first small tobacco factory of log construction remain. 
November 13, 1966. 

FORT FISHER, 18 miles south of Wilmington on U.S. 421, 
New Hanover County. 1861. 

A Confederate stronghold which formed an impassable 
barrier for the blockading Union fleet. Its fall in January, 
1865, helped isolate the Confederacy. November 5, 1961. 

HAYES PLANTATION, East Water Street Extension, 
Edenton vicinity, Chowan County, c. 1801. 

Displays unusually early touches of the Greek Revival, 
blended with Federal design. Large, white frame house with 
columned porch. November 7, 1973. 

HELPER, HINTON ROWAN, HOUSE, Mocksville, Davie 
County. 

Helper, author of a controversial anti-slavery book in 1857, 
lived here for the first 20 years of his life. Original log 
structure is now clapboarded. November 7, 1973. 

MARKET HOUSE, Market Square, Fayetteville, Cumber- 
land County. 1838. 

Patterned after 18th-century English town halls. Meat and 
produce were sold under the open first floor arcade while 
the second floor served as the town hall. November 7, 
1973. 

NASH-HOOPER HOUSE, 118 W. Tryon Street, Hills- 
borough, Orange County. 18th century. 
Built by Francis Nash, Revolutionary War hero and general, 
this was the home, from 1 782 to 1 790, of William Hooper, 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence for North 
Carolina and a Delegate to the Continental Congress in 
1775. November 11, 1971. 

OLD EAST, University of North Carolina campus, Chapel 
Hill, Orange County. 1795. 

Old East was the first building constructed on the campus 
of the first State university in the United States, chartered 
in 1 789. December 21, 1965. 

OLD SALEM HISTORIC DISTRICT, Salem College cam- 
pus and area near Salem Square, Winston-Salem, Forsyth 
County, c. 1770. 

Well-preserved example of an 18th-century German com- 
munity. Became the commercial center of the surrounding 
piedmont region. November 13, 1966. 

PALMER-MARSH HOUSE, Main Street, south of N.C. 92, 
Bath, Beaufort County, c. 1774. 
Large, two-story, frame townhouse designed as both a 
place of business and residence. May 10, 19 70. 



104 



NORTH CAROLINA / NORTH DAKOTA 

PLAYMAKERS THEATRE, Cameron Avenue, University 
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Orange County. 1850. 

One of the oldest structures on the campus, named for 
Governor Benjamin Smith and designed by the architect of 
the State Capitol. November 7, 1973. 

REED GOLD MINE, 11 miles southeast of Concord on 
U.S. 601 and N.C. 200, Cabarrus County. 1799. 

Nuggets found here set off the first gold rush in the United 
States. Furnished all the gold minted in Philadelphia before 
1829. May 23, 1966. 

SALEM TAVERN, 800 S. Main Street, Winston-Salem, 
Forsyth County. 1784. 

First brick building in Salem, reflecting the architectural 
heritage of the Moravian settlers. President Washington 
stayed here in 1 791. January 29, 1964. 

SINGLE BROTHERS' HOUSE, S. Main and Academy 
Streets, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County. 1768-1769, 1786. 
Restored example of German half timbered construction. 
Used as a trade school for Moravian boys and as a 
dormitory for master craftsmen, journeymen, and appren- 
tices. April 1 5 , 1970. 

STATE CAPITOL, Capitol Square, Raleigh, Wake County. 
1833-1840, Ithiel Town, A.J. Davis, David Paton. 

Greek Revival architecture. Imposing rotunda, two-story 
legislative chambers, rich detail, and subdued tones distin- 
guish the building. November 7, 1973. 

TOWN CREEK INDIAN MOUND, 4.5 miles southeast of 

Mount Gilead on N.C. 73, Montgomery County. Late 

prehistoric. 

Ceremonial center for a group of people with a Mississip- 

pian-influenced culture who had moved northward into the 

area. July 19, 1964. 

WOLFE, THOMAS, HOUSE, 48 Spruce Street, Asheville, 
Buncombe County. 20th century. 

Wolfe, a major American novelist, used his boyhood 
experiences in this rambling frame house in his classic novel 
Look Homeward, Angel. November 11, 1971. 



North Dakota 



MENOKEN INDIAN VILLAGE SITE, 1.25 miles north of 
Menoken, Verendrye State Park, Burleigh County. 1738. 
Site of the first Menoken Indian village reached by the 
Verendrye expedition of 1 738. Excavation has uncovered 
evidence of a palisade. July 19, 1964. 



105 



Ohio 



BEGINNING POINT OF THE U.S. PUBLIC LAND SUR- 
VEY, on the Ohio-Pennsylvania boundary, East Liverpool, 
Columbiana County. 1785. 

A rectangular land survey system, set up because of the 
Ordinance of 1 785, which provided for disposing of 
unoccupied land in the western territory. June 23, 1965. 

CINCINNATI MUSIC HALL, 1243 Elm Street, Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. 1878. 

An early civic center, joining a music hall and industrial 
exhibition halls, built in Victorian Gothic style. Used for 
popular 19th-century German-American Singing Festivals. 
December 2, 1974. 

COOKE, JAY, HOME, Putin-Bay, Lake Erie, Gibraltar 
Island, Ottawa County. 1864-1865. 

Civil War bond sales by financier Cooke were an important 
source of financial support for the Union. Postwar failure 
of Cooke's banking firm caused Panic of 1873. Island home 
was used in summers until 1905. November 13, 1966. 

DUNBAR, PAUL LAWRENCE, HOUSE, 219 N. Summit 
Street, Dayton, Montgomery County, c. 1890. 
Dunbar, early American Negro to gain distinction as a 
writer, lived herefrom 1903-1906. December 29, 1962. 

EDISON, THOMAS ALVA, BIRTHPLACE, Milan, Erie 
County. 1841. 

Edison, inventor of the microphone, phonograph, and 
incandescent electric lamp, was born here in 1847. January 
12, 1965. 

FALLEN TIMBERS BATTLEFIELD, 2 miles west of 
Maunee on U.S. 24, Lucas County. 1794. 
General "Mad Anthony" Wayne's victory here over the 
Indians established American sovereignty in the Old North- 
west and opened Ohio to settlement. October 9, 1 960. 

FORT ANCIENT, 7 miles southeast of Lebanon on Ohio 
350, Fort Ancient State Memorial, Warren County, c. 4 
A.D. 

Built and inhabited by people of the Hopewell culture. A 
hilltop area with large surrounding earthworks. July 19, 
1964. 

FORT MEIGS, 1.3 miles southwest of Perry sburg, Wood 
County. 1813-1815. 

Built by General William Henry Harrison during the War of 
1812, the Fort withstood a British siege in 1813. Aban- 
doned in 1815, after signing of peace treaty. August 4, 
1969. 



106 



OHIO 

GARFIELD, JAMES A., HOME (LAWNFIELD), 1059 
Mentor Avenue, Mentor, Lake County. 1832. 
Garfield, assassinated after serving only a few months as 
President, ran his 1880 Presidential campaign from Lawn- 
field. January 29, 1969. 

GIDDINGS, JOSHUA REED, LAW OFFICE, 112 North 
Chestnut Street, Jefferson, Ashtabula County. 1823. 
Small, two-room frame structure, used by the radical 
abolitionist and Congressman for most of his professional 
life. May 30, 1974. 

HARDING, WARREN G., HOME, 380 Mount Vernon 
Avenue, Marion, Marion County. 1890. 

The twenty-ninth President spent most of his adult life in 
this house. Conducted his 1920 Presidential campaign from 
the front porch. June 23, 1965. 

HOPETON EARTHWORKS, near Mound City Group Na- 
tional Monument on U.S. 23, Hopeton vicinity, Ross 
County, c. first century A.D. 

Site of a large Hopewellian ceremonial center. July 19, 
1964. 

LUNDY, BENJAMIN, HOUSE, Union and Third Streets, 
Mt. Pleasant, Jefferson County, c. 1815. 

Lundy established his influential anti-slavery newspaper in 
this brick rowhouse in 1820. May 30, 1974. 

MCGUFFEY, WILLIAM H., BOYHOOD HOME SITE, 
McGuffey Road near Ohio 616, Coitsville Township, 
Mahoning County. 1802. 

McGuffey, a college professor, authored the Eclectic 
Readers, elementary school texts which were used for over 
70 years in schools in every part of the United States. May 
23, 1966. 

MCGUFFEY, WILLIAM H., HOUSE, 401 E. Spring Street, 
Oxford, Butler County. 1833. 

While living here between 1833 and 1836, educator 
McGuffey wrote the first three of his six Eclectic Readers, 
widely used 19th-century elementary school textbooks. 
December 21, 1965. 

MANASSEH CUTLER HALL, OHIO UNIVERSITY, Ohio 
University campus, Athens, Athens County. 1819. 

Oldest college building in the Old Northwest. Named for 
the New England minister who wrote the University's 
charter in 1804. December 21, 1965. 

MIAMI AND ERIE CANAL (DEEP CUT), 2 miles south of 
Spencerville on Ohio 66, Allen County. 1825. 
The Deep Cut is a vestige of the canal, one of Ohio's two 
major artificial waterways. Brought settlers into western 
Ohio and provided access to markets for farmers. January 
29, 1964. 



107 



OHIO 

NEWARK EARTHWORKS, Mound Builders State Memo- 
rial, Newark, Licking County, c. 650 B.C. 
Prehistoric Hopewellian earthworks, notable for the pre- 
cision of its layout and the size of its plan. July 19, 1964. 

OBERLIN COLLEGE, Tappan Square, Oberlin, Lorain 
County. 1837. 

Matriculation of four women here in 1837 marked the 
beginning of co-education on the college level. A center for 
abolitionist activity and one of the first schools to admit 
Negroes. December 21, 1965. 

OHIO AND ERIE CANAL, Ohio 631, Valley View Village, 
Cuyahoga County. 1832. 

Part of a thousand-mile canal network connecting Lake Erie 
to the Ohio River. Designated section includes locks, 
aqueduct, mill, and house. November 13, 1966. 

PENDLETON, GEORGE HUNT, HOUSE, 559 E. Liberty 
Street, Cincinnati, Hamilton County. 1870. 
Congressman Pendleton and his committee met here in 
1882 to draft the Pendleton Act, creating the Civil Service 
merit system. Civil Service Commission met here for the 
first two years of its existence. January 29, 1964. 

S BRIDGE, NATIONAL ROAD, 4 miles east of Old 
Washington on U.S. 40, Guernsey County. 1828. 
A tangible reminder of the National Road, and one of the 
four extant stone bridges in Ohio. January 29, 1964. 

SERPENT MOUND, 5 miles northwest of Locust Grove on 
Ohio 73, Adams County. First century. 

Earthen snake effigy site, one of the first areas to be set 
aside because of its scientific value. July 19, 1964. 

SHERMAN, JOHN, BIRTHPLACE, 137 E. Main Street, 
Lancaster, Fairfield County. 1825. 

Congressman Sherman authored the Sherman Anti-Trust 
Act of 1890, the first attempt by the Federal Government 
to regulate industry. Older brother William Tecumseh 
Sherman, Union Army General, was also born here. Jan- 
uary 29, 1964. 

SPIEGEL GROVE (HAYES, RUTHERFORD B., HOME), 
Hayes and Buckland Avenues, Fremont, Sandusky County. 
1859-1863. 

Maintained as a memorial to Hayes (President from 1 SW- 
ISS 1) and his wife, who are buried here. Library and 
museum preserve family memorabilia. January 29, 1964. 

YOUNG, COLONEL CHARLES, HOUSE, Columbus Pike 

between Clifton and Stevenson Roads, Wilberforce, Greene 

County. 

Residence of the highest ranking black officer in World 

War I and the first black military attache. May 30, 1974. 



108 



Oklahoma 



CAMP NICHOLS, 3 miles northeast of Wheeless on Ranch 
Road, Cimarron County. 1865. 

Established by Kit Carson to offer protection to wagon 
trains using the Cimarron Cutoff of the Sante Fe Trail May 
23, 1963. 

CHEROKEE NATIONAL CAPITOL, Tahlequah, Cherokee 
County. 1869. 

The Cherokee appear to have recognized as early as Colo- 
nial times that their survival lay not in war with the colo- 
nists, but in adjusting their aboriginal culture to the chang- 
ing circumstances. As early as 1765 they recognized the 
need for schools. The National Capitol at Tahlequah repre- 
sents continuing successful adjustment even after the bitter 
trial of removal. July 4, 1961. 

CREEK NATIONAL CAPITOL, Okmulgee, Okmulgee 
County. 1878. 

Victorian style structure, used by the Creeks after their 
adoption of a representative form of government, modeled 
after the United States Congress. July 4, 1961. 

DEER CREEK SITE, 6 miles northeast of Newkirk, Kay 
County. 1700-1750. 

Occupied by the Wichita or related Indian groups in the 
first half of the 18th century. Also the site of a French 
trading post. April 16, 1964. 

FORT GIBSON, Fort Gibson, Muskogee County. 1824. 

Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole Indians removed from the 
Southeast by the Government were brought here between 
1824 and 1840. Fort was abandoned just before the Civil 
War. December 19, 1960. 

FORT SILL, north of Lawton, Comanche County. 1870. 
Troops stationed here were active in the campaigns against 
hostile southern Plains tribes in the late 1800's. Virtually all 
the original fort survives. December 19, 1960. 

FORT WASHITA, southwest of Nida on Okla. 199, Bryan 
County. 1842. 

Established by Zachary Taylor to protect Chickasaw 
Indians and to serve as a way-station for travelers on the 
Southern Overland Trail June 23, 1965. 

MCLEMORE SITE, 4 miles southeast of Colony on Okla. 
69, Washita County. 1300. 

Most carefully excavated of the sites making up a Plains 
Indian village agricultural complex. July 19, 1964. 



109 



OKLAHOMA / OREGON 

MURRELL HOME, Park Hill, Cherokee County. Mid-1 9th 
century. 

Two-story frame dwelling, built by a Cherokee near the 
tribal capital. Represents the anglicized lifestyle adopted by 
some of the Indians after their enforced exile from their 
southeastern homeland. May 30, 1974. 

SEQUOYAH'S CABIN, Okla. 101, Sequoyah's Cabin State 
Park, Akins vicinity, Sequoyah County. 1829. 

Frontier house of logs, occupied by Sequoyah (George 
Gist), Indian teacher who brought literacy to the Chero- 
kees. Giant California sequoia trees are named for him. 
December 21, 1965. 

STAMPER SITE, 2.5 miles south of Optima on the south 
bank of the North Canadian River, Texas County. 1300- 
1450. 

One of the few excavated sites of the North Canadian River 
branch of the Panhandle culture. July 19, 1964. 

WASHITA BATTLEFIELD, northwest of Cheyenne on 
U.S. 283, Roger Mills County. 1868. 

Scene of successful attack by Custer's troops on a Chey- 
enne camp. Demonstrated the effectiveness of winter 
campaigns against the Plains Indians. January 12, 1965. 

WHEELOCK ACADEMY, east of Millerton off U.S. 70, 
McCurtain County. 1832. 

Prototype for the tribal school systems established by the 
Five Civilized Tribes in the Indian Territory. December 21, 
1965. 



Oregon 



ELMORE, SAMUEL, CANNERY, on the waterfront at the 
foot of Flaval Street, Astoria, Clatsop County. 1881. 
Oldest continuously operated salmon cannery in the 
Nation, established when Astoria was the "salmon capital," 
from 1876-1887. November 13, 1966. 

FORT ASTORIA, 15th and Exchange Streets, Astoria, 

Clatsop County. 1812. 

Erected by fur trader John Jacob Astor in an effort to 

break the British fur monopoly. Represented an important 

American claim to the Oregon Territory. November 5, 

1961. 

FORT ROCK CAVE, Fort Rock vicinity, Lake County. 
7000 B.C. 

Site of the "Fort Rock sandals," oldest articles found in the 
Western Hemisphere. Indicate an early knowledge of weav- 
ing. January 20, 1961. 



110 



OREGON / PANAMA / PENNSYLVANIA 

JACKSONVILLE HISTORIC DISTRICT, Jacksonville, 
Jackson County. 1852-1884. 

A mid-1 9th century inland commercial town. Served as the 
main financial center of southern Oregon until bypassed by 
the railroad. November 13, 1966. 

LOWER KLAMATH NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, 

lower Klamath Lake, Klamath County. 1908. 
Set aside by President Theodore Roosevelt as one of the 
first areas of Public land to be reserved as a Federal wildlife 
sanctuary. January 12, 1965. 



Panama Canal Zone 



FORT SAN LORENZO, near mouth of Chagres River on 
Atlantic side of Isthmus of Panama, Panama Canal Zone. 
1597-1601. 

Built by Spain to guard one terminal of the overland trade 
route used to avoid the dangerous voyage around Cape 
Horn. October 9, 1960. 



Pennsylvania 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC, Broad and Locust Streets, Phila- 
delphia, Philadelphia County. 1857, Napoleon Le Brun and 
Gustav Runge. 

Country's oldest musical auditorium still retaining its 
original form and serving its original purpose. Home of the 
Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra. December 29, 1962. 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY HALL, Inde- 
pendence Square, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1789, 
Samuel Vaughan. 

Houses the oldest learned society in the United States. The 
Society publishes the oldest scholarly journal in America. 
January 12, 1965. 

ANDALUSIA (NICHOLAS BIDDLE ESTATE), 1.4 miles 
north of Philadelphia on State Road, Bucks County. 1794; 
1834, Thomas U. Walter. 

Residence of Nicholas Biddle, head of the Second Bank of 
the United States. Andrew Jackson's success in defeating 
the Bank's rechartering was a triumph of (< Jacksonian 
Democracy." November 13, 1966. 

AUGUSTUS LUTHERAN CHURCH, 7th Avenue East and 
Main Street, Trappe, Montgomery County. 1743. 

Exemplifies regional and church architecture typical of the 
German settlers of Pennsylvania. December 24, 1967. 



Ill 



PENNSYLVANIA 

BARTRAM, JOHN, HOUSE, 54th Street and Eastwick 
Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1731. 

Residence of one of America's first native botanists. The 
gardens, enlarged by his son, were filled with rare and 
exotic plants. October 9, 1960. 

BEGINNING POINT OF THE U.S. PUBLIC LAND SUR- 
VEY, on the Ohio-Pennsylvania boundary, west of Glas- 
gow, Beaver County. 1785. 

A rectangular land survey system, set up because of the 
Ordinance of 1 785, which provided for disposing of 
unoccupied land in the western territory. June 23, 1 965. 

BRANDYWINE BATTLEFIELD, Brandywine Battlefield 
Park, Chadds Ford, Delaware County. 1111 . 
Revolutionary War Battlefield where General Howe de- 
feated Washington's troops, precipitating the British cap- 
ture of Philadelphia. January 20, 1961. 

BUSHY RUN BATTLEFIELD, 2 miles east of Harrison 
City on Pa. 993, Westmoreland County. 1763. 
Site of a decisive British victory over "Pontiac's Rebellion," 
the best organized and most dangerous Indian threat to the 
colonial frontier in the 18th century. October 9, 1960. 

CARLISLE INDIAN SCHOOL, east edge of Carlisle on U.S. 
11, Cumberland County. 1879-1918. 

Founded by a Civil War officer, the school pioneered in 
Indian education and was a model for similar schools built 
elsewhere. July 4, 1961. 

CARPENTERS' HALL, 320 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia County. 1770-1771, Robert Smith. 

Designed and constructed by Robert Smith, master carpen- 
ter, as a guild hall for the Carpenters' Company of Phila- 
delphia. First Continental Congress met here in 1774. 
April 15, 1970. 

CEDARCROFT (BAYARD TAYLOR HOUSE), north of 
Kennett Square, Chester County. 1859. 
Taylor, a Civil War correspondent and highly -regarded 
novelist, did much of his writing in this house, which he 
built himself November 11, 1971. 

CHEW HOUSE (CLIVEDEN), Germantown Avenue, be- 
tween Johnson and Cliveden Streets, Philadelphia, Philadel- 
phia County. 1763. 

Georgian-style house with handsome pediments, cornices, 
and a fine doorway. An important landmark of the 1777 
Revolutionary Battle of Germantown, which helped precip- 
itate the alliance with France. January 20, 1961. 

CHRIST CHURCH, 2nd Street, between Market and Filbert 
Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1727-1754. 
Present ornate Georgian structure, used by a congregation 
organized in 1695, is the third building on the site. Most 



112 



PENNSYLVANIA 

striking exterior features are the Palladian window and 
Doric entablature. April 15, 1970. 

COLONIAL GERMANTOWN HISTORIC DISTRICT, 

Germantown Avenue, between Windrim Avenue and 
Upsal Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 18th and 
early 19th centuries. 

Founded in 1683 by Netherlander s fleeing religious perse- 
cution who were invited to Pennsylvania by William Penn. 
Exemplifies the successful settlement of a non-British group 
in one of the Thirteen Original Colonies. June 23, 1965. 

CORNWALL IRON FURNACE, Cornwall, Lebanon 
County. 1742. 

An example of the charcoal furnaces which produced most 
of America's iron until 1865. Cornwall made pig iron from 
1742 to 1883. November 3, 1966. 

DELAWARE AND HUDSON CANAL, Wayne County, 

1828. 

Main waterway connecting the coalfields of Pennsylvania 

with the furnaces of New York. Growth of railroads led to 

Canal's demise in 1899. November 24, 1968. 

DRAKE OIL WELL, 3 miles southeast of Titusville on Pa. 
36, Drake Well Memorial Park, Venango County. 1859. 

Site of the world's first oil well. Resulting oil boom made 
the region the oil center of the United States for 25 years. 
November 13, 1966. 

EAKINS, THOMAS, HOUSE, 1729 Mount Vernon Place, 
Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, c. 1854. 

Eakins, a noted portrait painter, lived in this house from 
the age of two until his death in 1916. December 21, 1965. 

EAST BROAD TOP RAILROAD, U.S. 522, Rockhill 
Furnace, Huntingdon County. 1872. 

One of the few narrow-gauge railroads still in operation, 
originally used to transport coal. January 28, 1964. 

EASTERN STATE PENITENTIARY, 21st Street and 
Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 
1823-1829, John Haviland. 

Designed with improvements in light, heat, space, and 
ventilation, in an effort to make the prison an instrument 
of reform rather than punishment. June 23, 1965. 

ELFRETH'S ALLEY HISTORIC DISTRICT, between 2nd 
and Front Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 17th 
and 18th centuries. 

Oldest unchanged and continuously inhabited street in 
Philadelphia. Example of the survival of a part of colonial 
America's largest city. October 9, 1960. 

EPHRATA CLOISTER, Ephrata, Lancaster County. 1740- 
1746. 



113 



PENNSYLVANIA 

Group of buildings showing a strong German architectural 
influence. Part of a self-sufficient community, founded by a 
German mystic in 1732. December 24, 1967. 

FORKS OF THE OHIO, Point Park, Pittsburgh, Allegheny 
County. 18th and 19th centuries. 

Junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers and 
strategic key to the Ohio Valley. French erected Fort 
Duquesne here in 1 754, English erected Fort Pitt in 1 758. 
October 9, 1960. 

FORT MIFFLIN, Marina and Penrose Ferry Roads, Phila- 
delphia, Philadelphia County. Original construction 1772- 
1775. Later changes. 

Occupied by a Colonial force during the Revolution. 
Rebuilt in 1798 according to plans drawn by L'Enfant, the 
designer of Washington, D.C. August 29, 1970. 

FOUNDER'S HALL, GIRARD COLLEGE, Corinthian and 
Girard Avenues, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1833- 
1847, Thomas U. Walter. 

Wealthy merchant Stephen Girard bequeathed six million 
dollars to Philadelphia in 1831, for the founding of an 
educational institution operated by the city. August 4, 
1969. 

FULTON OPERA HOUSE, 12-14 N. Prince Street, Lan- 
caster, Lancaster County. 1852, Samuel Sloane. 

Early Victorian structure built to serve several civic 
purposes. Named in honor of Robert Fulton, co-inventor of 
the steamboat and a county native. August 11, 1969. 

FULTON, ROBERT, BIRTHPLACE, 8 miles south of 
Quarryville on U.S. 222, Lancaster County, c. 1765. 
Fulton worked on the development of canal systems. 
Designed the first successful American steamboat, the 
"Clermont," launched in 1807. January 29, 1964. 

GALLATIN, ALBERT, HOUSE (FRIENDSHIP HILL), 3 

miles north of Point Marion on Pa. 166, Fayette County. 

1789. 

Elected to Congress in 1795, and Secretary of the Treasury 

from 1801 to 1813, Gallatin lived here during his years of 

government service. January 12, 1965. 

GRAEME PARK, Keith Valley Road, Horsham vicinity, 
Montgomery County. 1721-1722. 

An example of a one-room deep, 2V2-story colonial build- 
ing with rich Georgian interiors. Built originally as a malt 
house. October 9, 1960. 

HARMONY HISTORIC DISTRICT, Pa. 68, Harmony, 
Butler County. 1805-1814. 

The Harmony Society, 300 followers of George Rapp, 
established a Utopian settlement here in 1805. Developed 



114 



PENNSYLVANIA 

into a prosperous agricultural and manufacturing commu- 
nity. May 30, 1974. 

HONEY HOLLOW WATERSHED, 2.5 miles south of the 
Delaware River on Pa. 263, New Hope vicinity, Bucks 
County. 1939. 

First small watershed development in the country. Under- 
taken on privately owned farmland to promote soil, water, 
and wildlife conservation. August 4, 1969. 

HORSESHOE CURVE, 5 miles west of Altoona on Pa. 193, 
Blair County. 1854. 

A notable example of unusual railroad engineering con- 
struction. Joined the eastern and western divisions of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. November 13, 1966. 

INSTITUTE OF THE PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL, 111 
N. 49th Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1859. 
Hospital for the mentally ill, operated on the premise that 
insanity should be treated as an illness. Influenced similar 
institutions throughout America. June 23, 1965. 

LOGAN, JAMES, HOME (STENTON), 18th and Courtland 
Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1730. 
Logan, builder of the house, was Chief Justice of the 
Pennsylvania Supreme Court and a serious botanist. Lived 
here from 1730 to 1751.1 730. 

MOTHER BETHEL A.M.E. CHURCH, 419 6th Street, 
Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1889. 

Founded by a former slave in 1 793. Became the mother 
church of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in 
America. May 30, 1974. 

MOUNT PLEASANT, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Phila- 
delphia County. 1761-1762. 

One of the finest examples of late Georgian domestic 
architecture in Pennsylvania. Contains a central hallway 
with flanking rooms rich in interior decorations. October 9, 
1960. 



MUSICAL FUND SOCIETY HALL, 808 Locust Street, 
Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1824, William Strick- 
land; 1847, Nicholas Le Brun; 1891, Addison Hutton. 
Erected originally to house the Musical Fund Society; now 
the oldest music hall in the country. First Republican 
National Convention held here in 1856. May 30, 1974. 

NEW MARKET, South 2nd Street, between Pine and 
Lombard Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1745. 
An 18th-century street market, used until well into the 
19th-century. Two rows of brick pillars support a gable 
roof and arched ceiling over an open market area. Novem- 
ber 13, 1966. 



115 



PENNSYLVANIA 



OLD ECONOMY, Pa. 65, Ambridge, Beaver County. 1825. 
Settled by members of the Harmony Society. Primarily an 
industrial community, it was one of the most successful of 
the Utopian communities. June 23, 1965. 

OLD WEST, DICKINSON COLLEGE, Dickinson College 
campus, Carlisle, Cumberland County. 1804-1822, Benja- 
min H. Latrobe. 

Old West is located at the heart of the college founded by 
Dr. Benjamin Rush, with the support of Thomas Jefferson. 
June 13, 1962. 

PEALE, CHARLES WILLSON, HOUSE (BELFIELD), 
2100 Clarkson Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, 
c. 1750. 

Peale, noted for his portraits of George Washington and 
other Revolutionary figures, lived here from 1810 to 1820. 
December 21, 1965. 

PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL, THE, 8th and Spruce 
Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1756, Samuel 
Rhoads. 

Oldest hospital in the United States. Established with the 
support of Benjamin Franklin in 1 752. June 22, 1 965. 

PINCHOT, GIFFORD, HOUSE (GREY TOWERS), west 
edge of Milford, Pike County, c. 1886. 

Pinchot, America's first professionally trained forester, 
occupied this stone, chateau-like house until 1946. Helped 
create the present-day Forest Service. May 23, 1963. 

POE, EDGAR ALLAN, HOUSE, 530 N. 7th Street, 
Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, c. 1830. 

Poe wrote many of his best-known short stories in this 
small brick cottage, his home from 1842 to 1844. Decem- 
ber 29, 1962. 

POWDERLY, TERENCE V., HOUSE, 614 N. Main Street, 
Scranton, Lackawanna County, c. 1870's-1890's. 

Powderly was the head of the Knights of Labor, an early 
labor union and forerunner of the A.F. of L., from 1879 to 
1893. May 23, 1966. 

PRIESTLEY, JOSEPH, HOUSE, Priestley Avenue, North- 
umberland, Northumberland County, c. 1794. 

Priestley's research in chemistry enabled him to identify 
oxygen in 1776 and carbon monoxide in 1 794. One wing of 
his framehouse was his laboratory. January 12, 1965. 

PRINTZHOF, THE, Taylor Avenue and 2nd Street, Essing- 
ton, Delaware County, c. 1643. 

The colony of New Sweden, ruled by Governor Johan 
Printz, was the first permanent European settlement in what 
later became Pennsylvania. Excavations have uncovered the 
foundations of his house. November 5, 1961. 



116 



PENNSYLVANIA 

REYNOLDS-MORRIS HOUSE, 225 South 8th Street, 
Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1786-1787. 
One of the finest surviving original examples of a Georgian 
Philadelphia row townhouse. An L-shaped, 3 l /2-story brick 
building, with a gable roof. December 24, 1967. 

SEARIGHTS TOLLHOUSE, NATIONAL ROAD, west of 
Uniontown near U.S. 40, Fayette County. 1835. 

Six tollhouses were erected by Pennsylvania on its portion 
of the National Road. This hexagonal brick structure is one 
of the two extant. January 29, 1964. 

1704 HOUSE, Dilworthtown vicinity, Delaware County. 
1704. 

Early stone house, representative of the larger type of 
dwelling house, built by a Chester County English Quaker. 
December 24, 1967. 

STIEGEL-COLEMAN HOUSE, Pa. 501 and U.S. 322, 
Brickerville, Lancaster County. 1756-1758, c. 1780. 
Part of this stone house was built by William Stiegel and 
part by Robert Coleman, co-owners of an iron furnace 
which manufactured war materiel during the Revolution. 
November 13, 1966. 

SULLY, THOMAS, RESIDENCE, 530 Spruce Street, Phila- 
delphia, Philadelphia County. 1796. 

Sully, a painter of portraits and historical scenes (including 
"Washington Crossing the Delaware") lived in this brick 
rowhouse briefly. December 21, 1965. 

SUMMERSEAT, Clymer Street and Morris Avenue, Morris- 
ville, Bucks County, c. 1770. 

Home of George Clymer, a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, a Delegate to the Constitutional Convention, 
from 1806 to 1813, and a signer of the Constitution. July 
17, 1971. 

TAYLOR, GEORGE, HOUSE, Front Street, Catasauqua, 
Lehigh County. 1768. 

Taylor, ironmaster, politician, and a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, lived in this two-story stone house 
from 1768 to 1776. July 17, 1971. 

U.S.S. OLYMPIA, Pier 40, at the foot of Chestnut Street, 
Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1888. 

Oldest steel-hulled American warship afloat. Served as 
Commodore Dewey's flagship in the battle of Manila Bay. 
January 29, 1964. 

VALLEY FORGE, Valley Forge State Park, Norristown 
vicinity, Chester and Montgomery Counties. 1777-1778. 
Washington's army emerged from the bitter Valley Forge 
winter of 1 777-1 778 stronger and better trained. Defeated 
British Regulars at Monmouth in June, 1778. January 20, 
1961. 



117 



PENNSYLVANIA 



VON STEUBEN, GENERAL FREDERICK, HEADQUAR- 
TERS, Pa. 23, Valley Forge State Park, Chester County. 
18th century. 

Von Steuben, Prussian staff officer and aide-de-camp to 
Frederick the Great, volunteered to serve as inspector 
general and drillmaster of the Continental Army in 1778. 
Helped to mold it into a viable fighting force. November 
28, 1972. 

WALNUT STREET THEATRE, 9th and Walnut Streets, 
Philadelphia, Philadelphia County. 1809, John Haviland. 
One of the oldest surviving theaters in the United States, 
originally used for circuses. Legitimate drama presented 
here after 1811. December 29, 1962. 

WASHINGTON CROSSING STATE PARK, between Yard- 
ley and New Hope, on the Delaware River, Yardley vicinity, 
Bucks County. 1776. 

Site of the embarkation of Washington's main force as they 
prepared to cross the Delaware River to raid Trenton, on 
Christmas night, 1776. January 1, 1961. 

WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS, Valley Creek Road, 
near junction of Pa. 252 and Pa. 23, Valley Forge State 
Park, Montgomery County. 18th century. 

Served as Washington's headquarters from December, 1 777 
to June, 1778. Small colonial farmhouse with a plain, early 
Georgian exterior and an elaborate late Georgian interior. 
November 28,1972. 

WAYNESBOROUGH, 2049 Waynesborough Road, East- 
town, Chester County. 1724, 1735, and 1792. 

Original portion of house was built by Anthony Wayne, 
grandfather of General Anthony Wayne, who was born here 
in 1 745. November 28, 1972. 

WEISER, CONRAD, HOUSE, 2 miles east of Womelsdorf 
on U.S. 422, Berks County. 1751. 

Weiser promoted friendly relations between the Iroquois 
and the British, a decisive factor in England's victory in the 
French and Indian War. October 9, 1960. 

WEST, BENJAMIN, BIRTHPLACE, Swarthmore College 
campus, Swarthmore, Delaware County. 1724. 

West made a major contribution to American art by his 
support for young artists such as Gilbert Stuart and Charles 
Willson Peale. December 21, 1965. 

WHEATLAND (BUCHANAN, JAMES, HOUSE), 1120 
Marietta Avenue, Lancaster, Lancaster County. 1828. 
Seventeen-room brick house, the residence of President 
Buchanan from 1849 to 1868. July 4, 1961. 

WOODFORD, East Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. Philadel- 
phia County. 1734, 1756. 

The first of the late Georgian mansions to be erected in the 



118 



PENNSYLVANIA / PUERTO RICO / RHODE ISLAND 

Philadelphia area. Built by a wealthy merchant and judge. 
December 24, 1967. 

WOODLANDS, THE, 40th Street and Woodland Avenue, 
Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, c. 1770. 
Notable example of late Georgian domestic residential 
architecture. Built by William Hamilton and remodeled in 
the Adamesque style in 1 788. December 24, 1967. 



Puerto Rico 



LA FORTALEZA, San Juan Island, between San Juan Bay 
and Calle Recinto Oeste, San Juan. 1533-1540; 1845-1846 
(remodeled and enlarged). 

Built by the Spanish as a defense against raids by French 
and English pirates. Became the residence of the island's 
Governors. October 9, 1960. 



Rhode Island 



ARNOLD, ELEAZER, HOUSE, Great Road, Lincoln, 
Providence County, c. 1720, 1760. 

Built in two parts, of framed timber and clapboard 
construction. Interesting example of an 18th-century New 
England farmhouse. November 24, 1968. 

BRICK MARKET, Thames Street and Washington Square, 
Newport, Newport County. 1762-1772, Peter Harrison. 
An example of Colonial commercial architecture, originally 
built with open arcades on the ground floor. Two upper 
stories were used for stores and offices. October 9, 1960. 

BROWN, JOHN, HOUSE, 52 Power Street, Providence, 
Providence County. 1786-1788. 

Large, late Georgian mansion, designed by the noted 
colonial amateur architect Joseph Brown for his brother. 
November 24, 1968. 

COLLEGE HILL HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by 
Olney Street, Cohan Boulevard, Hope Street, and the 
Providence and Moshassuck Rivers, Providence, Providence 
County, c. 1730-1880. 

Contains most of the original area of 1 7th-century settle- 
ment plus three hundred 18th- and 19th-century build- 
ings. December 30, 1970. 

CORLISS-CARRINGTON HOUSE, 66 Williams Street, 
Providence, Providence County. 1810-1811. 
Three-story brick, Federal-style house. Main facade is 
dominated by a two-story porch with superimposed Corin- 
thian and Ionic iron columns. December 30, 1970. 



119 



RHODE ISLAND 

FIRST BAPTIST MEETINGHOUSE, N. Main Street, be- 
tween Thomas and Waterman Streets, Providence, Provi- 
dence County. 1774-1775, Joseph Brown, James Sumner. 

Architecturally and historically a notable public building of 
the colonial period. Origins date from establishment of first 
Baptist organization in America by Roger Williams in 1639. 
October 9, 1960. 

GREENE, GENERAL NATHANAEL, HOMESTEAD, 40 
Taft Street, Anthony, Kent County. 1774. 
Greene designed and built this two-story clapboard dwell- 
ing, typical of the 18th-century New England farmhouses. 
Occupied the house until 1 783. November 28, 1972. 

HOPKINS, GOVERNOR STEPHEN, HOUSE, 15 Hopkins 
Street, Providence, Providence County. 1707, c. 1742- 
1743. 

Interior woodwork, fireplaces, and trim are relatively intact 
on house acquired in 1 742 by Hopkins, Governor, Member 
of both Continental Congresses, and a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. November 11, 1971. 

HUNTER HOUSE, 54 Washington Street, Newport, New- 
port County, c. 1748. 

Early New England, Georgian style, two-story residence 
constructed for Deputy Governor Jonathan Nichols, Jr. 
November 24, 1 968. 

IVES, THOMAS P., HOUSE, 66 Power Street, Providence, 
Providence County. 1803-1806. 

Brick residence of 3V2-stories, with a balustraded roof and 
marble foundations, window lintels, and sills. December 30, 
1970. 

KING, EDWARD, HOUSE, Aquidneck Park, Spring Street, 
Newport, Newport County. 1845-1847, Richard Upjohn. 

An example of the Italian Villa style of architecture which 
became popular in the mid-1 9th century. Provided a break 
with the traditional symmetry of design and regularity of 
plan heretofore popular. December 30, 1970. 

NEWPORT HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by Van Zandt, 
Farewell, Sherman, High, Thomas, Golden Hill, Thames, 
Marsh, and Washington Streets, Newport, Newport County. 
18th century. 

District's Georgian public buildings and mansions are 
among the most advanced in style of any erected in the 
Colonies. Rows of small dwellings and shops, largely near 
the waterfront, also give the area architectural distinction. 
November 24, 1 968. 

OLD SLATER MILL, Roosevelt Avenue, Pawtucket, Pro- 
vidence County. 1793. 

Samuel Slater founded the cotton textile manufacturing 
industry in the United States after serving as a mill 
apprentice in England. Mill now operated as a museum. 
November 13, 1966. 



120 



RHODE ISLAND 

OLD STATEHOUSE, Washington Square, Newport, New- 
port County. 1739-1741, Richard Munday. 

Brick building surmounted by a two-story octagonal cu- 
pola, once used by the Rhode Island legislature. Scene of a 
banquet for General Washington during the Revolutionary 
War. October 9, 1960. 

ORIGINAL UNITED STATES NAVAL WAR COLLEGE, 

Coaster's Harbor Island, Newport, Newport County. 1819. 

Established to offer advanced courses for naval officers. 
Alfred Mahan, architect of America's early naval policy, 
served as president of the College. January 29, 1964. 

REDWOOD LIBRARY, 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, 
Newport County. 1750, Peter Harrison. 
Outgrowth of an 18th-century philosophical society. One 
of the oldest library buildings in continuous use in the 
United States. October 9, 1960. 

SHERMAN, WILLIAM WATTS, HOUSE, 2 Shepard Ave- 
nue, Newport, Newport County. 1875-1876, Henry Hob- 
son Richardson. 

Architect Richardson imported English Queen Anne archi- 
tecture to the United States with his design for this house. 
Characterized by a bold and symmetrical massing of form. 
December 30, 1970. 

SITE OF THE BATTLE OF RHODE ISLAND, Ports- 
mouth, Newport County. 1778. 

Only Revolutionary War battle in which an all-black unit, 
the First Rhode Island Regiment, participated. Joined 
General John Sullivan's army in attacking British garrison in 
Newport. May 30, 1974. 

STUART, GILBERT, BIRTHPLACE, Gilbert Stuart Road, 
Saunderstown, Washington County. 1755. 

Stuart, best known for his portraits of George Washington 
and other prominent political figures, lived here between 
1755 and 1761. December 21,1965. 

TRINITY CHURCH, 141 Spring Street, Newport, Newport 
County. 1725-1726. 

Built by master carpenter Richard Munday. An early New 
England, Georgian, frame church, closely modeled after 
Boston's Old North Church. November 24, 1968. 

UNIVERSITY HALL, Brown University campus, Provi- 
dence, Providence County. 1770-1771. 
Oldest university building and the only building on the 
campus in 1819, when educator Horace Mann graduated. 
Mann established the first normal school in 1839. June 13, 
1962. 

VERNON HOUSE, 46 Clarke Street, Newport, Newport 
County. Late 1750's. 

Academically correct late-Georgian frame residence noted 
for its fine interior trim and stairway. November 24, 1968. 



121 



RHODE ISLAND / SOUTH CAROLINA 

WANTON-LYMAN-HAZARD HOUSE, 17 Broadway, New- 
port, Newport County. 1695. 

Illustrates the architectural transition from 17th to 18th 
century style. Damaged by Stamp Act riots in 1 765 when 
occupied by a Tory Stampmaster. October 9, 1960. 



South Carolina 



AIKEN, WILLIAM, HOUSE AND ASSOCIATED RAIL- 
ROAD STRUCTURES, 456 King Street, Charleston, 
Charleston County. 1807-1811. 

Aiken's Charleston and Hamburg Railroad was the first to 
use a steam locomotive in regular service and the first to 
carry mail. Brick house is now used by the Southern Rail- 
way System for administrative purposes. November 4, 
1963. 

BEAUFORT HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by Bound- 
ary, Hamar, and Bladen Streets, and by the Beaufort River, 
Beaufort, Beaufort County. 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. 
Marked by a distinctive style of southern architecture, 
differing from that of Savannah and Charleston. Houses 
stand on individual lots, with two- story porticos or veran- 
das. Interiors are open, light, and airy. November 7, 1973. 

BLACKLOCK, WILLIAM, HOUSE, 18 Bull Street, Charles- 
ton, Charleston County. 

Three-story brick house with hipped roof. One of the city's 
largest residences, done in the Adam style. November 7, 
1973. 

BREWTON, MILES, HOUSE, 27 King Street, Charleston, 
Charleston County. 1765-1769, Ezra Waite. 

A "Charleston double house," with a highly ornamented 
interior and exterior. Occupied during the Revolutionary 
War by British General Clinton. October 9, 1960. 

BREWTON, ROBERT, HOUSE, 71 Church Street, Charles- 
ton, Charleston County. 1730. 

One of the oldest surviving Charleston houses and the 
earliest "single house, " an architectural type peculiar to this 
city. October 9, 1 960. 

BRICK HOUSE RUIN, south of Edisto Island, Charleston 
County, c. 1725. (Destroyed by fire, 1929). 

Shell of what was a two-story plantation house. Exhibits 
evidence of the French Huguenot influence on South 
Carolina's Colonial architecture. April 15, 1970. 

CAMDEN BATTLEFIELD, 5 miles north of Camden on 
U.S. 521 and 601. Kershaw County. 1780. 

The defeat at Camden climaxed a series of disasters for the 



122 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

Continental Army and brought General Nathanael Greene 
to the American command. January 20, 1961. 

CHARLESTON HISTORIC DISTRICT, includes the Old 
and Historic District, Charleston, Charleston County. 18th 
and early 19th centuries. 

Largest and most prosperous 18th-century metropolis south 
of Philadelphia. Many of the residences and public buildings 
retain their period character. October 9, 1960. 

CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS, Stateburg, Sumter 
County. 1850. 

An example of antebellum religious architecture. Gothic 
Revival cruciform-design church contains a rare organ and 
original carved walnut pews. November 7, 1973. 

COKER EXPERIMENTAL FARMS, west of Hartsville on 

S.C. 151, Darlington County. Late 19th and early 20th 

centuries. 

James Coker pioneered in research in plant hybridization 

and cultivation, particularly in corn and cotton. July 19, 

1964. 

COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON, Glebe, George, St. Philip, 
and Green Streets, Charleston, Charleston County. 19th 
century. 

The gate lodge, main building, and library, three 19th- 
century structures, achieve architectural unity by means of 
their Pompeian red stuccoed walls. November 11, 1971. 

DRAYTON HALL, 12 miles west of Charleston on S.C. 61, 
Charleston County. 1738-1742. 

Outstanding example of a plantation house. Entrance hall, 
with its elaborate double stairs, full wood paneling, and 
ornamental ceiling, was among the finest in the Colonies. 
October >, 1 960. 

EXCHANGE AND PROVOST, East Bay Street, Charleston, 
Charleston County. 1767-1771. 

Built as a customhouse and mercantile exchange. Provided 
meeting rooms for Committee of Correspondence, State 
legislature, and Constitutional ratification committee. No- 
vember 7, 1973. 

FARMERS' AND EXCHANGE BANK, 14 East Bay Street, 
Charleston, Charleston County. 1854. 

Moorish design of bank may have been influenced by 
popularity of Washington Irving's novel, The Alhambra. 
Style evolved from one aspect of English Regency archi- 
tecture. November 7 , 1973. 

FIREPROOF BUILDING, 100 Meeting Street, Charleston, 
Charleston County. 1822-1826, Robert Mills. 
Believed to be the first fireproof building erected in the 
United States. Designed to house State records safely. 
November 7, 1973. 



123 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, 1306 Hampton Street, Colum- 
bia, Richland County. 1856. 

South Carolina Secession Convention met here in 1860. 
Adopted a unanimous resolution favoring secession. No- 
vember 7, 1973. 

FORT HILL (JOHN C. CALHOUN HOUSE), Clemson 
University campus, Clemson, Pickens County. 1803. 
Calhoun, Congressional leader and champion of States 
rights, wrote his "South Carolina Exposition and Protest" 
at Fort Hill in 1828. Occupied this house from 1825 to 
1850. December 19, 1960. 

GIBBES, WILLIAM, HOUSE, 64 South Battery, Charles- 
ton, Charleston County, c. 1779. 

Two-story, late-Georgian townhouse, one of Charleston's 
most elegant wooden "double houses." April 15, 1970. 

HAMPTON PLANTATION, 8 miles north of McClellanville, 
Charleston County. 1735. 

Originally built by a Huguenot settler, the building evolved 
from a modest frame structure into a large Georgian coun- 
try house. April 15, 1970. 

HEYWARD, DUBOSE, HOUSE, 76 Church Street, Charles- 
ton, Charleston County. 20th century. 

Occupied from 1919 to 1924 by the author o/Porgy, the 
book upon which the folk opera "Porgy and Bess" was 
based. November 11, 1971. 

HEY WARD-WASHINGTON, HOUSE, 87 Church Street, 
Charleston, Charleston County, c. 1770. 
A Charleston "double house." First floor rooms were serv- 
ice rooms and all entertaining was done on the second 
floor. April 15, 1970. 

HIBERNIAN HALL, 105 Meeting Street, Charleston, 
Charleston County. 1840. 

Democratic Convention of 1860 held in Charleston— one of 
most critical political assemblies held in United States. Fate 
of old Party system shattered by results here. Democratic 
Party was splintered, and Republican Party assured victory. 
Hibernian Hall only extant building associated with Con- 
vention, was Douglas faction headquarters. Douglas was 
pivotal personality at Convention. February 17, 1974. 

HOPSEWEE (THOMAS LYNCH HOUSE), 12 miles south 
of Georgetown on U.S. 17, Georgetown County, c. 1740. 

Lynch, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was 
born here in 1 749. House shows a West Indian influence, 
with double-tiered piazza. November 11, 1971. 

HUGUENOT CHURCH, 136 Church Street, Charleston, 
Charleston County. 1845. 

City's first Gothic Revival building and first Gothic design 
by architect E.B. White. November 7, 1973. 



124 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

LANCASTER COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 104 North Main 
Street, Lancaster, Lancaster County. 1828. 
Robert Mills may have designed this two-story brick 
building, still in use. Features fine woodwork and vaulted 
ceilings. November 7, 1973. 

LANCASTER COUNTY JAIL, 208 West Gay Street, 
Lancaster, Lancaster County. 1823. 

Three-story stuccoed building reflects innovations of archi- 
tect Robert Mills. Omitted dungeon and designed cells for 
better air circulation. November 7, 1973. 

MANIGAULT, JOSEPH, HOUSE, 350 Meeting Street, 
Charleston, Charleston County. 1790. 

First neoclassic building designed by Gabriel Manigault. 
Reflects the architectural influence of Robert Adam. 
November 7, 1973. 

MARKET HALL AND SHEDS, 188 Meeting Street, 
Charleston, Charleston County. 1841. 

Imposing building with Doric columns, frontal portico, and 
elaborate iron work, resembling a small Roman temple. 
November 7, 1973. 

MARSHLANDS, 501 Pinckney Street, Beaufort, Beaufort 
County. 1814. 

Built for Dr. James Verdier, discoverer of a treatment for 
yellow fever. House shows West Indian influence, with an 
arcaded cellar. November 7, 1973. 

MIDDLEBURG PLANTATION, about 2 mUes southwest of 
Huger, on East Branch of the Cooper River, Berkeley 
County, c. 1699. 

Transitional two-story plantation house, one of the oldest 
frame structures in the State. Built by a French Huguenot 
planter. April 15, 1970. 

MIDDLETON PLACE, 10 miles southeast of Summerville 
on S.C. 61, Dorchester County. 18th, 19th, 20th centuries. 

Spacious grounds constitute the first landscaped gardens in 
America, with molded terraces descending to two butterfly 
lakes. Original house burned by Union troops in 1865. 
November 11, 1971. 

MILFORD PLANTATION, 2 miles west of Pinewood on 
S.C. 261, Sumter County. 1839. 

Monumental two-story antebellum Greek Revival mansion. 
Outstanding interior feature is the unsupported, flying 
circular staircase in central rotunda. November 7, 1973. 

MILLS, CLARK, STUDIO, 51 Broad Street, Charleston, 
Charleston County. Early 19th century. 
Mills pioneered in the casting of bronze statues. Commis- 
sioned in 1848 to do the equestrian statue of General 
Andrew Jackson, now in Lafayette Park, in Washington, 
DC. December 21, 1965. 



125 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

MILLS, ROBERT, HOUSE, 1616 Blanding Street, Colum- 
bia, Richland County. 1823, Robert Mills. 

Classical two-story brick mansion, built for a wealthy 
merchant by Robert Mills, native South Carolinian, first 
Federal architect and the designer of the Washington 
Monument. November 7, 1973. 

MULBERRY PLANTATION, off U.S. 52 on the Cooper 
River, Moncks Corner, Berkeley County. 1714. 
A plantation house which illustrates the transition from the 
diversity of Colonial architectural styles to the unified 
formality of the Georgian style. Constructed for a Royal 
Governor. October 9, 1960. 

OLD MARINE HOSPITAL, 20 Franklin Street, Charleston, 
Charleston County. 19th century, Robert Mills. 
One of several marine hospitals designed by Mills for 
indigent seamen. Gothic style, with pointed arches and 
windows and clustered columns. November 7, 1973. 

OLD NINETY SIX AND STAR FORT, 2 miles south of 
Ninety Six between S.C. 248 and 27, Greenwood County. 
18th century. 

Last British Revolutionary War stronghold in South Caro- 
lina. Yielded to General Nathanael Greene's 1 781 siege. 
November 7, 1973. 

PARISH HOUSE OF THE CIRCULAR CONGREGA- 
TIONAL CHURCH, 150 Meeting Street, Charleston, 
Charleston County. 1806, Robert Mills. 

Small Greek Revival temple, with graceful twin stairways 
and notable wrought-iron railings. November 7, 1973. 

PENN SCHOOL HISTORIC DISTRICT, Frogmore, Beau- 
fort County. 19th century. 

Northern missionaries organized one of the first southern 
schools for Negroes here. Pioneered in health services and 
self-help programs. Oldest existing structure is Brick Church 
(1855). December 2, 1974. 

POMPION HILL CHAPEL, 0.5 mile southwest of intersec- 
tion of S.C. 41 and 402, Huger, Berkeley County. 1763- 
1765. 

Virtually unaltered example of a South Carolina brick 
parish church. Interior woodwork and nearly all furnishings 
are original. April 15, 19 70. 

RHETT, ROBERT BARNWELL, HOUSE, 6 Thomas 
Street, Charleston, Charleston County, c. 1832. 
Rhett, an eloquent speaker and owner of the "Charleston 
Mercury" newspaper, was an effective advocate of secession 
in the 1860's. November 7, 1973. 

ROPER, ROBERT WILLIAM, HOUSE, 9 East Battery, 

Charleston, Charleston County. 

Large brick residence, probably designed by Edward B. 



126 



SOUTH CAROLINA 



White. Five-column Greek Revival portico is architecturally 
unusual on a house in this area. November 7, 1973. 

RUSSELL, NATHANIEL, HOUSE, 51 Meeting Street, 
Charleston, Charleston County, c. 1809. 

Three-story brick residence characteristic of homes built by 
wealthy Carolina merchants. Interior features ornamental 
friezes, carved doors, and Adam mantels. November 7, 
1973. 

RUTLEDGE, EDWARD, HOUSE, 117 Broad Street, 
Charleston, Charleston County. 1787. 

Rutledge, a Delegate to the Continental Congress, and a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence lived here 
from 1787 until his death in 1800. 

RUTLEDGE, GOVERNOR JOHN, HOUSE, 116 Broad 
Street, Charleston, Charleston County. 1763 and addition 
in 1853. 

Rutledge served in the Continental Congress, was a Delegate 
to the Constitutional Convention, a Governor of South 
Carolina, and signer of the the Constitution. February 1 7, 
1974. 



ST. JAMES', GOOSE CREEK, south of Goose Creek, 
Berkeley County. 1713-1719. 

Before the Revolution St. James was part of the Established 
Church in South Carolina, the Church of England. Rectan- 
gular, one-story brick structure, covered with stucco. April 
15, 1970. 

ST. JAMES, SANTEE, 17 miles south of Georgetown on 
the Santee River, Charleston County. 1768. 

St. James is five bays long and three bays wide, with a 
classic, pedimented portico on the front facade. April 15, 
1970. 



ST. MICHAEL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 80 Meeting 
Street, Charleston, Charleston County. 1761. 

An ecclesiastical architectural monument of the colonial 
period. Two-story Roman Doric open portico, first such 
portico built on a Georgian church, dominates the facade. 
October 9, 1960. 

ST. PHILIP'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 146 Church Street, 
Charleston, Charleston County, c. 1836, 1848-50. 

Stuccoed brick church, featuring an imposing tower done in 
the Wren-Gibbs tradition. November 7, 1973. 

ST. STEPHEN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, on S.C. 45, St. 
Stephens, Berkeley county. 1767-1769. 

Georgian- style brick church distinguised by high gambrel 
roof with Jacobean gables. Exterior and interior appear to 
be original. April 15, 1970. 



127 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

SIMMONS-EDWARDS HOUSE, 12-14 Legare Street, 
Charleston, Charleston County, c. 1800. 

One of Charleston's finest examples of a "single" house, 
with noteworthy outbuildings and landscaped garden. 
November 7, 1973. 

SMALLS, ROBERT, HOUSE, 511 Prince Street, Beaufort, 
Beaufort County. 1843. 

Smalls, a former slave who served in the State legislature 
and in Congress, lived here as both slave and free man. 
Fought for black rights while in office. May 30, 1973. 

SNEE FARM, about 6 miles west of Mount Pleasant off 
U.S. 17, Charleston County, c. 1754. 

Home of Charles Pinckney, signer of the Constitution, 
Governor of South Carolina, U.S. Senator. Clapboard 
residence was built by Pinckney 's father. February 17, 
1974. 

SNOW'S ISLAND, east of Johnsonville at confluence of 
Great Pee Dee River and Lynch 's Creek, Florence County. 
18th century. 

Served as headquarters for General Francis Marion's forces 
in 1780-1781. Marion significantly contributed to Ameri- 
can war effort by conducting numerous raids on British 
outposts. December 2, 1974. 

MILLS BUILDING, SOUTH CAROLINA STATE HOSPI- 
TAL, 2100 Bull Street, Columbia, Richland County. 
1821-1828, Robert Mills. 

Oldest building in the country to be used continuously as a 
mental institution. One of the first mental hospitals built 
with public funds. November 7, 1973. 

STONO RIVER SLAVE REBELLION SITE, Rantowles 
vicinity, Charleston County. 1739. 

Site of a serious slave insurrection in the Colonial period, 
when some 100 escaped slaves burned plantations and 
murdered whites before being stopped by militia. July 4, 
1974. 

STUART, COLONEL JOHN, HOUSE, 104-106 Tradd 
Street, Charleston, Charleston County, c. 1772. 
Finest example in the Southern Colonies of a three-story, 
Georgian, frame townhouse. Built by the Royal Commis- 
sioner for Indian affairs in the South. February 17, 1974. 

UNITARIAN CHURCH, 6 Archdale Street, Charleston, 
Charleston County. 1772; 1852-1854, redesigned. 
Redesigned to simulate Westminster Abbey's Gothic chapel 
of Henry VII. November 7, 1973. 

WOODLANDS (WILLIAM GILMORE SIMMS ESTATE), 3 

miles south of Bamberg on S.C. 78, Bamberg County. 19th 
century. 

Simms, an important literary figure in the antebellum 
period, was forced to rebuild this mansion twice. November 
11, 1971. 

128 



South Dakota 



ARZBERGER SITE, 7.5 miles east of Pierre on the 
Missouri River, Hughes County. 1500. 

Northernmost outpost of the Central Plains tradition, 
representing a fortified village atop a low mesa. July 19, 
1964. 

BLOOD RUN SITE, south of Sioux Falls at the junction of 
Blood Run Creek and the Big Sioux River, Lincoln County. 

Site contains the remains of an Indian village and numerous 
conical mounds. Occupied about 1 700 to 1 750, by the 
Oneota people. August 29, 1970. 

BLOOM SITE, east of Bloom on the James River, Hanson 
County. 1000. 

Well-preserved example of a prehistoric fortified Over 
Focus Indian site. May have housed ancestors of Mandan 
Indians. July 19, 1964. 

CROW CREEK SITE, 15 miles north of Chamberlain on 
the east side of Missouri River near S.D. 47, Buffalo 
County. Prehistoric. 

Large fortified Indian village site, partially excavated. 
Represents two occupations, one related to the Over Focus, 
the other to the Campbell Focus. July 19, 1964. 

DEADWOOD HISTORIC DISTRICT, Deadwood, Lawrence 
County. 1876. 

Site of rich gold strike in 1875, Deadwood retains its 
mining town atmosphere, with many original buildings 
remaining. July 4, 1961. 

FORT THOMPSON MOUNDS, near Fort Thompson on 
S.D. 50, Crow Creek Indian Reservation, Buffalo County, 
c. 800. 

Large group of low burial mounds dating from Plains 
Woodland times. Contains evidence of first pottery-making 
peoples in area. July 19, 1964. 

LANGDEAU SITE, north of Lower Brule on S.D. 47W, 
Lyman County. Prehistoric. 

Type site for an as-yet-unnamed archeological complex 
within the Middle Missouri tradition. July 19, 1964. 

MITCHELL SITE, municipal golf course, Mitchell, Davison 
County, c. 1000. 

Excavations here show the movement of a late Woodland- 
Mississippian culture from the east to the Missouri Valley. 
July 19, 1964. 

MOLSTAD VILLAGE, 18 miles south of Mobridge, over- 
looking the Oahe Reservation, Dewey County. Prehistoric. 

Tiny fortified village site containing five circular house rings 
enclosed by a ditch. July 19, 1964. 

129 



SOUTH DAKOTA / TENNESSEE 

WOUNDED KNEE BATTLEFIELD, 11 miles west of 

Batesland, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, Shannon County. 

1890. 

Site of last significant clash between Indians and soldiers in 

North America. Defeated Sioux were forced to abandon 

their Ghost Dance religion after Wounded Knee. December 

21, 1965. 

Tennessee 



BEALE STREET HISTORIC DISTRICT, Beale Street, 
from Main to 4th Streets, Memphis, Shelby County. Early 
1900's. 

The "blues," a unique Negro contribution to American 
music, was born on a Beale Street lined with saloons, 
gambling halls, and theaters. W.C. Handy wrote "Memphis 
Blues" here. May 23, 1966. 

BLOUNT MANSION, 200 West Hill Avenue, Knoxville, 
Knox County. 1792. 

Governor of the Southwest Territory, Blount was influ- 
ential in gaining statehood for Tennessee. Mansion served as 
the Territorial capitol for a time. January 12, 1965. 

FORT LOUDOUN, U.S. 411, Vonore vicinity, Monroe 
County. 1756-1757. 

Built by the English at the request of the Cherokees. 
Helped ally the Indians and the British during the French 
and IndianWar. June 23, 1 965. 

FORT PILLOW, Tenn. 87, Fort Pillow, Lauderdale County. 
1861-1864. 

Built by the Confederates, the Fort was captured by Union 
troops in 1862, recaptured by Confederates in 1864. Heavy 
losses by black soldiers in that battle made the Fort a 
symbolic "Alamo" for them. May 30, 1974. 

FRANKLIN BATTLEFIELD, south of Franklin on U.S. 
31, Williamson County. 1864. 

Marked the failure of Confederate General Hood's Tennes- 
see campaign, when his army's repeated attacks here were 
repulsed by Union troops. December 19, 1960. 

GEORGE PEABODY COLLEGE FOR TEACHERS, 21st 
Avenue South and Edgehill Avenue, Nashville, Davidson 
County. 1914, Ludlow and Peabody. 

First college aided by the Peabody Fund, created in 1867 
by philanthropist George Peabody to help rebuild the 
South's educational system. December 21, 1965. 

HERMITAGE, THE, 12 miles east of Nashville on U.S. 
70N, Davidson County. 1818-1819. 

Andrew Jackson, President from 1829-1837, lived here for 
over 40 years, before and after his Presidency. December 
19, 1960. 



130 



TENNESSEE 

HIRAM MASONIC LODGE NO. 7, South Second Avenue, 
Franklin, Williamson County. 1823. 

Treaty written here in 1830 provided for the removal of 
Chickasaw Indians from their lands. President Jackson 
personally opened the meeting. November 7, 1973. 

JUBILEE HALL, FISK UNIVERSITY, 17th Avenue North, 
Nashville, Davidson County. 1873-1876, Stephen D. Hatch. 

Victorian Gothic structure, the oldest building on campus. 
Fisk was founded by the American Missionary Association 
to provide a liberal arts education for blacks after the Civil 
War. December 2, 1974. 

LONG ISLAND OF THE HOLSTON, south fork of 
Holston River, Kingsport vicinity, Sullivan County. 
Starting point of Daniel Boone's Wilderness Road through 
the Cumberland Gap, used by over 200,000 settlers from 
1775-1795. August 9, 1960. 

PINSON MOUNDS, 3 miles east of Pinson on secondary 
road, Madison County. Mounds c. A.D. 1000; occupation as 
early as 5000 B.C. 

Includes two large temple mounds, effigy mound, and 
earthworks. Site occupied during several archeological 
periods. January 29, 1 964. 

POLK, JAMES K., HOUSE, West 7th and South High 
Streets, Columbia, Maury County. 1816. 
Polk, President from 1845 to 1849, lived in this house for 
several years during his youth. July 4, 1961. 

RATTLE AND SNAP, Andrew Jackson Highway, Tenn. 43, 
Columbia vicinity, Maury County. 1845. 
Large L-shaped brick residence, built by a cousin of 
President Polk. Main facade, with two-story Corinthian 
portico, gives house distinction. November 11, 1971. 

SYCAMORE SHOALS, 2 miles west of Elizabethton on the 
Watauga River, Carter County. 1770-1780. 
Treaty signed by the Cherokees here in 1775 allowed the 
United States to purchase 20 million acres of their land. 
July 19, 1964. 

TENNESSEE STATE CAPITOL, Capitol Hill, Nashville, 
Davidson County. 1845, 1854, William Strickland. 

Designed like a Greek temple, with an Ionic portico on each 
of its four sides. Interior is simple and well-proportioned. 
November 11, 1971. 

WYNNEWOOD, Gallatin-Hartsville Pike (Tenn. 25), 
Castalian Springs, Sumner County. 

First settlement in middle Tennessee, built at a sulphur 
spring. Log structure (1828) at site used as stagecoach inn 
and residence. November 11, 1971. 

X-10 REACTOR, OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORA- 



131 



TENNESSEE / TEXAS 

TORY, Oak Ridge, Anderson County. 1943. 
World's first full-scale nuclear reactor. Principal atomic 
research facility in the United States for many years. 
December 21 , 1965. 



Texas 



ALAMO, Alamo Plaza, San Antonio, Bexar County. 1718. 
Site of the 1836 battle between Mexican troops and the 
American defenders of San Antonio, including Davy 
Crockett. American defeat here spurred the Texas inde- 
pendence movement. December 19, 1960. 

ESPADA AQUEDUCT, Espada Road, just east of U.S. 
281S, San Antonio, Bexar County. 1731-1745. 

Once part of an irrigation system serving five area missions. 
Only remaining Spanish structure of its type in the United 
States. July 19, 1964. 

FORT BELKNAP, 1 mile south of junction of Tex. 24 and 
251, Newcastle vicinity, Young County. 1851. 
Key post in a chain of defenses established to protect the 
Texas frontier. Used during the Civil War for campaigns 
against the Indians. December 19, 1 960. 

FORT BROWN, Brownsville, Cameron County. 1846, 

1868. 

Built by General Zachary Taylor's army during the Mexican 

War. Used in the 1850's to control border disputes and 

hostile Indians. December 19, 1960. 

FORT CONCHO, south edge of San Angelo, Tom Green 
County. 1867. 

Established to protect the Texas frontier. Soldiers from the 
Fort carried out campaigns against the Kiowas and Coman- 
ches between 1870-1875. July 4, 1961. 

FORT RICHARDSON, south of Jacksboro on U.S. 281, 
Jack County. 1867. 

Important military post on the southwest frontier during 
the Indian campaigns, particularly the Red River War of 
1874. November 27, 1963. 

GOVERNOR'S MANSION, 1010 Colorado Street, Austin, 
Travis County. 1856. 

Symmetrical Greek Revival residence, exhibiting the work- 
manship of architect-builder Abner Cook. Used contin- 
uously by Governors since 1856. December 2, 1974. 

HARRELL SITE, 1 mile north of South Bend on the 
Brazos River, Young County, c. 1300-1600. 

Type site of the southernmost Plains village agricultural 
complex. Possibly represents a group ancestral to Wichita 
Indian tribes. July 19,1 964. 



132 



TEXAS 

J A RANCH, Palo Duro Canyon, Palo Duro vicinity, 
Armstrong County. 1879-1889. 

Charles Goodnight, manager of J A Ranch from 1879 to 
1889, was a pioneer cattleman and the first rancher in 
Texas Panhandle. Recognized for his scientific cattle 
breeding. December 19, 1960. 

KING RANCH, Kenedy, Kleberg, Nueces and Willacy 
Counties. 1852. 

Founded by Richard King on what was a 75,000 acre 
Spanish land grant. Now the largest ranch in the Nation, 
covering over a million acres. November 5, 1 961 . 

LANDERGIN MESA, east side of East Alamosa Creek, 
Mansfield Ranch, Vega vicinity, Oldham County, c. 1300- 
1450. 

Panhandle culture ruin consisting of a series of buildings 
atop a steep-sided mesa. July 19, 1964. 

LUCAS GUSHER, SPINDLETOP OIL FIELD, 3 miles 
south of Beaumont on Spindletop Avenue, Jefferson 
County. 1901. 

Tapping of Spindletop opened the coastal plain to commer- 
cial development and marked beginning of modern petro- 
leum industry. November 13, 1966. 

MISSION CONCEPCION, 807 Mission Road, San Antonio, 
Bexar County. 1731-1735. 

Best preserved of the Texas missions, founded by Francis- 
can friars. Massive church building is designed in Mexican 
Baroque style, with twin bell towers. April 15, 1970. 

PALO ALTO BATTLEFIELD, 6.3 miles north of Browns- 
ville, Farm Road 511, Cameron County. 1846. 

Site of first of two important Mexican War battles fought 
on American soil. General Zachary Taylor's victory here 
made invasion of Mexico possible. December 19, 1960. 

PLAINVIEW SITE, .5 mile west of the junction of U.S. 70 
and 87, Plainview, Hale County, c. 7000 B.C. 

Excavations at site demonstrated the antiquity of a spear 
point commonly found throughout the Plains region. 
January 20, 1961. 

PORTER FARM, 2 miles north of Terrell on Farm Road 
986, Kaufman County. 1903. 

First cooperative farm demonstration held here in 1903. 
Contributed to the development of the Agricultural Exten- 
sion Service. July 19, 1964. 

PRESIDIO NUESTRA SENORA DE LORETO DE LA 
BAHIA, 1 mile south of Goliad State Park on U.S. 183, 
Goliad County. 1749. 

Spanish soldiers were garrisoned here to protect nearby 
missions. Later played an important role in revolutionary 
efforts against Spain. December 24, 1967. 



133 



TEXAS / UTAH 

RESACA DE LA PALMA BATTLEFIELD, north edge of 
Brownsville on Parades Line Road, Cameron County. 1846. 
Battle involving forces of General Zachary Taylor and the 
Mexican Army, begun at Palo Alto, continued here. 
Defeated Mexicans retreated across the Rio Grande. Decem- 
ber 19, 1960. 

SAN JACINTO BATTLEFIELD, 22 miles east of Houston 
on Tex. 134, Harris County. 1836. 

General Sam Houston's forces won the decisive engagement 
of the Texas Revolution here. Independence paved the way 
for annexation by the United States. December 19, 1960. 

SPANISH GOVERNOR'S PALACE, 105 Military Plaza, 
San Antonio, Bexar County. 18th century. 

Only remaining example in Texas of an aristocratic 18th- 
century Spanish residence. Served as headquarters for the 
captain of the presidio. April 15, 1970. 

WOODLAND, Avenue L, Huntsville, Walker County. 

Typical Texas hill-country clapboard cottage. Samuel 
Houston's residence from 1847-1859, during his terms as 
United States Senator. May 30, 1974. 



Utah 



ALKALI RIDGE, 25 miles southeast of Monticello on 
secondary road, 10 miles east of Recapture Creek on Utah 
47, San Juan County, c. 900-1100. 

Excavations here closed the gap in the known development 
of the Pueblo Indian culture. Defined the period known as 
Pueblo II. July 19, 1964. 

BINGHAM CANYON OPEN PIT COPPER MINE, 16 miles 
southwest of Salt Lake City on Utah 48, Salt Lake County. 
1904. 

First open pit copper mine in the world, and the largest. 
Continues to yield a high percentage of all American 
copper. November 13, 1966. 

DANGER CAVE, 1 mile east of Wendover on U.S. 40, 
Tooele County, c. 9000 B.C. to A.D. 20. 

Excavations here provided a picture of the life of the 
hunting and gathering peoples living in the Great Basin. 
January 20, 1961. 

DESOLATION CANYON, Carbon, Emery, Grand and 
Uintah Counties. 1869. 

John Wesley Powell, naturalist and explorer, led an 1869 
expedition down the Colorado River to the previously 
unexplored canyon, naming natural landmarks along the 
way. November 24, 1968. 

EMIGRATION CANYON, east edge of Salt Lake City on 



134 



UTAH / VERMONT 

Utah 65, Salt Lake County. 1847. 

Forms the passage through the Wasatch Mountains to Salt 
Lake Valley traversed by Brigham Young and his Mormon 
followers in their journey from the Missouri Valley. 
January 20, 1961. 

TEMPLE SQUARE, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County. 
Temple, 1853-1893, Truman O. Angell; Tabernacle, 1862- 
1867; Assembly, 1882. 

Symbolizes the strong cultural and religious individuality of 
the Mormons. Tabernacle's unsupported domed roof is one 
of the largest in the world. January 28, 1964. 

YOUNG, BRIGHAM, HOUSE (LION HOUSE), 63 South 
Temple Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County. 1856, 
Truman O. Angell and William Ward. 

Home of Brigham Young, successor to Joseph Smith and 
the leader of the Mormon migration to Salt Lake Valley, 
until his death in 1877. January 28, 1964. 



Vermont 



COOLIDGE, CALVIN, HOMESTEAD, off Vt. 100A, 
Plymouth Notch, Windsor County. 1876-1887. 

Coolidge's father, a justice of the peace, administered the 
Presidential oath to his son in this framehouse, after word 
was received of Harding's death in 1923. June 23, 1 965. 

FROST, ROBERT, FARM (HOMER NOBLE FARM), 1 
mile north of Vt. 125, 3 miles east of Ripton, Addison 
County. 1940-1963. 

A distinguished 20th-century poet and winner of four 
Pulitzer Prizes, Frost lived and wrote at the farm in the 
summer and fall months, from 1940-1963. May 23, 1968. 

FROST, ROBERT, FARM (THE GULLY), 0.25 mile east 
of U.S. 7 on Buck Hill Road, South Shaftsbury, Bennington 
County. 1790. 

Pulitzer-Prize-winning poet Frost spent his summers at this 
Cape Code farmhouse from 1929 to 1938. May 23, 1968. 

MARSH, GEORGE PERKINS, BOYHOOD HOME, 54 Elm 
Street, Woodstock, Windsor County. 1805-1807; 1885, 
Henry Hudson Holly. 

Marsh, lawyer and philologist, made a significant contri- 
bution to the conservation movement in America with his 
writings. November 9, 1967. 

MORRILL, JUSTIN, HOMESTEAD, south of the Com- 
mon, Strafford, Orange County, c. 1848. 
Morrill was responsible for the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 
1890, which provided for land grant colleges. Owned this 
Gothic Revival house while serving in the Congress, from 
1855 to 1898. September 22, 1960. 



135 



VERMONT / VIRGINIA 

MOUNT INDEPENDENCE, on Lake Champlain opposite 
Fort Ticonderoga, northwest of Orwell, Addison County. 
1776. 

Fortified by Colonial troops in 1 776 to prevent the British 
from penetrating to the Hudson River through the Cham- 
plain Valley. November 28, 1972. 

ROBBINS AND LAWRENCE ARMORY AND MACHINE 
SHOP, South Main Street, Windsor, Windsor County. 1846. 

Shop employees made significant improvements in the 
design and production of machine tools in the 1840's. 
Helped to accelerate the Industrial Revolution in America. 
November 13, 1966. 

STATEHOUSE, State Street, Montpelier, Washington 
County. 1833-1838, Ammi B. Young; 1859. 

Damaged by fire in 1857, the granite exterior walls and 
Doric portico survived. Interior was reconstructed accord- 
ing to the original plans. December 30, 1970. 

TICONDEROGA, THE, Shelburne Museum, Shelburne, 
Chittenden County. 1906. 

Only extant and basically unchanged side-paddle-wheel 
lakeboat in the United States. Used as a Lake Champlain 
excursion boat from 1906 to 1953. January 28, 1964. 

WILLARD, EMMA, HOUSE, Middlebury College Campus, 
Middlebury, Addison County. 1809. 

Two-story brick structure, now used as the admissions 
office for the school which was known as the Middlebury 
Female Seminary when it was founded in 1814 by Emma 
Willard, pioneer in the movement for female education. 
December 21, 1965. 



Virginia 



ALEXANDRIA HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by the 
Capital Beltway, Alfred, Patrick, Prince, Oronoco and 
Princess Streets, and the Potomac River, Alexandria City. 
From mid-1 8th century until the Civil War Alexandria was 
the principal seaport and the commercial center of northern 
Virginia. District contains significant examples of Colonial 
and Federal architecture. November 13, 1966. 

BACON'S CASTLE, Bacon's Castle, Surry County, c. 1655. 

Supporters of rebel Nathaniel Bacon seized and fortified 
this house in 1676. One of the earliest of the Virginia 
cross-plan houses. October 9, 1960. 

BARRACKS, VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE, north 

edge of Lexington on U.S. 11, Lexington City. Mid-1 9th 

century. 

Part of the original barracks wall has been incorporated into 

the present cadet barracks. December 21, 1965. 



136 



VIRGINIA 

BERKELEY, 9 miles south of Va. 633 and 0.3 miles south 
of its intersection with Va. 5, Charles City Court House, 
Charles City County. 1726. 

Rectangular, two-story Georgian house was the birthplace 
and life-long home of Benjamin Harrison V, a Signer of the 
Declaration of Independence for Virginia, and also the 
birthplace of President William Henry Harrison. November 
11, 1971. 

BERRY HILL, 1.5 miles south of intersection of Routes 
659 and 682, South Boston vicinity, Halifax County, 
c. 1839. 

Two-story, stuccoed, Greek Revival mansion, with an im- 
pressive Greek Doric portico across the front. November 
11, 1971. 

BRANDON, west bank of James River at the end of Route 
611, Brandon vicinity, Prince George County. 18th cen- 
tury. 

A plantation comprising 4500 acres of woodland, pasture, 
and gardens. Main house is a seven-part brick structure, 
with a two-story center section. April 15, 1970. 

BREMO HISTORIC DISTRICT, 0.9 mile north of intersec- 
tion of Routes 15 and 656, Bremo Bluff vicinity, Fluvanna 
County. Early 19th century. 

Includes a group of architecturally significant structures. 
Main brick residence has architectural features associated 
with Jefferson, whose advice was sought on the building 
plans. November 11, 1971. 

BRUTON PARISH CHURCH, Duke of Gloucester Street, 
Williamsburg City. 1712-1715, Alexander Spotswood. 

For many years the court church of Virginia. Cruciform in 
style, with a steep gable roof and circular windows in the 
end walls. April 15, 1970. 

CAMDEN, 0.5 mile north of intersection of Routes 686 and 
17, Port Royal vicinity, Caroline County. 1857-1859, 
Norris G. Starkweather. 

Two-story Italian villa featuring such 19th-century innova- 
tions as a central heating system, gas lights, inside toilets, 
and shower baths. Upper story of Camden's tower de- 
stroyed by a Union gunboat in 1863. November 11, 1971. 

CAPE HENRY LIGHTHOUSE, Atlantic Avenue at U.S. 60, 
Virginia Beach City. 1792, John McComb, Jr. 
First lighthouse to be erected by the Federal Government. 
Ninety-foot-high stone building was in constant use until 
1881. January 29, 1964. 

CARTER'S GROVE, 0.2 mile southeast of intersection of 
Routes 60 and 667, Williamsburg vicinity, James City 
County. Mid-18th century. 

Originally a massive, two-story rectangular building 
crowned by a hip roof. Interior woodwork considered to be 
a fine example of Colonial period work. April 15, 1970. 



137 



VIRGINIA 

CEDAR CREEK BATTLEFIELD AND BELLE GROVE, 

on Int. 81 between Middletown and Strasburg, Frederick 
and Warren Counties, c. 1790. 

Union General Philip Sheridan defeated Confederate Gene- 
ral Jubal Early here in October, 1864, in the struggle for 
the Shenandoah Valley. Belle Grove, built by James 
Madison's brother-in-law, served as Sheridan's headquarters. 
August 11, 1969. 

CHRIST CHURCH, 3 miles south of Kilmarnock on Va. 3, 
Lancaster County. 1732. 

Significant example of Colonial ecclesiastical architecture, 
well-preserved in plan, exterior design, and interior furnish- 
ings. May 30, 1961. 

CHRIST CHURCH, southeast corner of Cameron and 
Columbus Streets, Alexandria City. 1767-1773, James 
Wren. 

Little-altered, continuously used, 18th-century, brick, late 
Georgian church. East wall is highlighted by a two-tier 
Palladian window, and interior wooden galleries were added 
about 1785. April 15, 1970. 

CONFEDERATE CAPITOL (VIRGINIA STATE CAPI- 
TOL), Capitol Square, Richmond City. 1785-1792, 
Thomas Jefferson and Louis Clerisseau. 

Greek Revival building, used as the Confederate Capitol 
from 1861 to 1865. Grounds contain statues of noted 
Virginians. December 19, 1960. 

DRYDOCK NO. 1, Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth 
City. 1827-1834. 

Shipyard, established in 1767, is the oldest in the country. 
During the Civil War the Union frigate il Merrimac" was 
rebuilt here by the Confederates, becoming the ironclad 
"Virginia." November 11, 1971. 

EGYPTIAN BUILDING, southwest corner, East Marshall 
and College Streets, Richmond City. 1845, Thomas Stew- 
art. 

Oldest medical college building in the South. An exotic 
edifice, considered to be the finest Egyptian Revival 
building in the Nation. November 11, 1971. 

ELSING GREEN, 2.1 miles southwest of intersection of 
Routes 632 and 623, Tunstall vicinity, King William 
County. 18th and 19th centuries. 

Two-story, U-shaped plantation house, overlooking Pamun- 
key River. Outbuildings include a kitchen, smokehouse, and 
dairy. November 11, 1971. 

EXCHANGE, THE, 15-19 West Bank Street, Petersburg 
City. 1841. 

Built for the display and auction of tobacco and cotton. 
Two-story Greek Revival structure, with a Doric portico in 
front of part of entrance facade. November 11, 1971. 



138 



VIRGINIA 

FIVE FORKS BATTLEFIELD, 12 miles west of Petersburg 
on County Route 627 at Church Road, Dinwiddie County. 
1865. 

Battle marked a victory for Grant in his campaign to force 
Lee from the Richmond-Petersburg defenses. December 19, 
1960. 

FORT MONROE, Old Point Comfort, Hampton City. 
1819-1834. 

Spectators watched the battle between the U.S.S. "Moni- 
tor" and C.S.S. "Virginia" from Fort's ramparts. Jefferson 
Davis was imprisoned here after the Confederacy fell. 
December 19, 1960. 

FORT MYER HISTORIC DISTRICT, Arlington Boulevard 
(U.S. 50), Arlington, Arlington County. 20th century. 
Site of the earliest experiments in military aviation (1908). 
Since 1909 Quarters 1 on "General's Row" has been the 
home of the Army Chiefs of Staff November 28, 1972. 

GADSBY'S TAVERN, 128 N. Royal Street, Alexandria 
City. 1752, 1792. 

One of the best known of the 18th-century inns, serving as 
a meeting place for prominent Colonial figures. Washington 
recruited men here in 1 754 for the French and Indian War. 
November 4, 1963. 

GLASGOW, ELLEN, HOUSE, 1 West Main Street, Rich- 
mond City. 19th-20th centuries. 

Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Glasgow lived here from 
1887 to 1945. Her books comprise a social history of 
Virginia from the 1850's through the 1940' s. November 11, 
1971. 

GREEN SPRINGS HISTORIC DISTRICT, northeast of 
Zion Crossroads on U.S. 15, Louisa County. 18th-20th 
centuries. 

Settled in the 1720's, the district's farms were a major 
source of wheat in the mid-1 800's. Flourishing historic 
estates represent phases of Virginia architecture from 
colonial times to the 1860's. May 30, 1974. 

GREENWAY COURT, 1 mile south of White Post on Va. 
277, Clarke County. 1762. 

Estate of Lord Fairfax from 1751 to 1781. Proprietor of a 
vast tract of land in Virginia, Fairfax employed George 
Washington as a surveyor. October 9, 1960. 

GUNSTON HALL, 15 miles south of Alexandria on Va. 
242, Fairfax County. 1755-1758, William Buckland. 
Notable for its interior carved detail and formal gardens. 
Home of George Mason, leading Revolutionary figure and 
author of the Virginia Declaration of Rights. December 19, 
1960. 



139 



VIRGINIA 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE, 0.8 mile northwest of intersection 
of Route 60 and Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel, Hampton 
City. 19th century. 

Now a liberal arts college, the Institute was founded by the 
American Missionary Society to offer vocational education 
to former slaves. Booker T. Washington, founder of 
Tuskegee Institute, was a graduate. May 30, 1974. 

HANOVER COUNTY COURTHOUSE, intersection of 
Routes 1006 and 301, Hanover County, c. 1735. 

Courthouse has been used continuously since its erection. 
Patrick Henry brought suit here in 1 763, winning a case 
involving religious liberty in the colony. November 7, 1973. 

JACKSON'S, STONEWALL, HEADQUARTERS, 415 N. 
Braddock, Street, Winchester City. 1854. 

Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, a 
leading military strategist, used this Gothic Revival house 
prior to the Shenandoah Campaign of 1862. May 28, 1967. 

KENMORE, 1201 Washington Avenue, Fredericksburg 
City. Mid-18th century. 

Built by Fielding Lewis, member of the Virginia House of 
Burgesses, for his bride Betty, George Washington's sister. 
Interior plasterwork at Kenmore is very rare in 18th- 
century American houses. April 15, 1970. 

LEE CHAPEL, WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY, 

Washington and Lee University campus, Lexington City, 
c. 1866. 

Victorian Gothic brick building, commemorating the years 
from 1865 to 1870 when Robert E. Lee served as president 
of the college. Lee is buried in a chapel vault. December 19, 
1960. 

MARLBOURNE (EDMUND RUFFIN PLANTATION), 11 

miles northeast of Richmond on U.S. 360, Hanover 
County. 1843. 

Ruffin, an opponent of the soil-depleting agricultural 
system of the antebellum South, used his plantation as a 
laboratory for agricultural experiments. July 19, 1964. 

MARSHALL, JOHN, HOUSE, 9th and Marshall Streets, 
Richmond City. 1790. 

Chief Justice Marshall, who presided over the Supreme 
Court from 1801-1835, owned this house for 45 years, 
spending much time here. December 19, 1960. 

MCCORMICK, CYRUS, FARM AND WORKSHOP, 18 

miles south of Staunton on U.S. 11 and County Route 606 
at Walnut Grove, Rockbridge County. Early 1800's. 
McCormick's invention of the mechanical reaper in 1834 
helped revolutionize agriculture. Both workshop and farm- 
house have been well preserved. July 19, 1964. 

MELCHERS, GARI, HOME (BELMONT), Falmouth, Staf- 



140 



VIRGINIA 

ford County. Early 1900's. 

Melchers, landscape and portrait painter, lived here from 
1916 until 1932. Two of his paintings hang in the Library 
of Congress. December 21, 1965. 

MENOKIN, 1.2 miles northwest of intersection of County 
Routes 690 and 621, Ethel vicinity, Richmond County. 
1769. 

Built for Rebecca Tayloe Lee and her husband Francis 
Lightjoot Lee. Two-story structure of local stone which has 
been stuccoed. November 11, 1971. 

MONROE, JAMES, TOMB, Hollywood Cemetery, 412 
South Cherry Street, Richmond City. 1859, Albert 
Lybrock. 

The tomb is a cast iron cage standing above the simple 
granite sarcophagus of the former President. November 11, 
1971. 

MONROE, JAMES, LAW OFFICE, 908 Charles Street, 
Fredericksburg City. 1758. 

President from 1817 to 1825, Monroe occupied an office 
here from 1 786 to 1 789, after studying law with Thomas 
Jefferson. November 13, 1966. 

MONTICELLO, 2 miles south of Charlottesville on Va. 53, 
Albemarle County. 1770-1789, Thomas Jefferson. 

Jefferson, Member of the Continental Congress, President 
from 1801-1809, and author of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, spent a lifetime perfecting his mansion. Com- 
bined elements of Roman, Palladian and 18th-century 
French design with features expressing his personal inven- 
tiveness. December 19, 1960. 

MONTPELIER (JAMES MADISON HOUSE), 4 miles west 
of Orange on Va. 20, Orange County, c. 1760. 
Madison, fourth President of the United States and one of 
the framers of the Constitution in 1787, lived here for 76 
years. Both he and Dolley Madison are buried at Mont- 
pelier. December 19, 1960. 

MONUMENTAL CHURCH, 1224 East Broad Street, Rich- 
mond City. 1812-1814, Robert Mills. 

Erected on the site of the American French Academy, a 
theater destroyed in 1811 by fire. Serves as both an 
Episcopal parish church and a monument to those who died 
in the fire. November 11, 1971. 

MOUNT AIRY, 1 mile west of Warsaw on U.S. 360, 
Richmond County. 1758-1762, John Ariss. 

One of the few major 18th-century Virginia plantation 
houses built of stone. Done in the Palladian style, with an 
abundance of stone detail. October 9, 1960. 

MOUNT VERNON, 7 miles south of Alexandria on George 
Washington Memorial Parkway, Fairfax County. 1743. 



141 



VIRGINIA 

Home of George Washington, Commander in Chief of the 
Revolutionary forces and first President. Two-story, frame, 
Georgian house, with formal gardens, facing the Potomac 
River. Washington returned here after his term as President, 
and lived here until his death in 1 799. December 19, 1960. 

OAK HILL (JAMES MONROE HOUSE), 8 miles south of 
Leesburg on U.S. 15, Loudoun County. 1820-1823, James 
Hoban. 

President from 1817-1825, Monroe owned Oak Hill until 
1830, outlining the Monroe Doctrine in a letter written 
here. Two-story gable-roofed brick house, with a striking 
south portico. December 19, 1960. 

OATLANDS, 1 mile south of intersection of Routes 15 and 
651, Leesburg vicinity, Loudoun County, c. 1800. 

Notable Federal-style mansion, designed by George Carter, 
builder-owner. Of brick, covered with stucco, and laid out 
in a five part plan. Extensive formal gardens added after 
1803. November 11, 1971. 

OLD CITY HALL, bounded by 10th, Broad, 11th, and 
Capitol Streets, Richmond City. 1887-1894, Elijah E. 
Myers. 

Elaborate Gothic Revival building, Richmond's first major 
post-Civil War structure. Interior features a four-story skylit 
well. November 11, 1971. 

POPLAR FOREST, 0.5 mile south of intersection of Routes 
661 and 460, Lynchburg vicinity, Bedford County. Early 
19th century, Thomas Jefferson. 

Built by Jefferson as a country retreat. Brick, one-story 
building, octagonal in shape. November 11, 1971. 

QUARTERS 1, Grant Avenue, Fort Myer, Arlington, 
Arlington County. 1899. 

One of six large residences on "General's Row," Quarters 1 
has been the residence of all Army Chief of Staff since 
1910. Occupants have included Douglas Mac Arthur and 
Dwight Eisenhower. November 28, 1972. 

RANDOLPH, PEYTON, HOUSE, intersection of Nicholson 
and north England Streets, Williamsburg City. c. 1715, 
1724 (east end). 

A rectangular, two-story, early -Georgian, framehouse, 
erected in three stages. Main rooms contain fine paneling. 
April 15, 1970. 

RANDOLPH, VIRGINIA, COTTAGE, 2200 Mountain 
Road, Glen Allen, Williamsburg City. 1937. 
Under the Jeanes Fund, set up by a wealthy Philadelphia 
Quaker to aid black education, Virginia Randolph became 
the first Jeanes supervisor, working to upgrade black 
vocational training. December 2, 1974. 

RIPSHIN FARM, north side of Va. 732, 0.1 mile east of 



142 






VIRGINIA 

intersection with Va. 603, Trout Dale vicinity, Grayson 
County. 1927, William Spratling. 

Rustic stone-and-log structure, built by author Sherwood 
Anderson as a summer home and used by him until his 
death in 1941. November 11, 1971. 

RISING SUN TAVERN, 1306 Caroline Street, Fredericks- 
burg City. 1760, Charles Washington. 

A frame building, built by youngest brother of George 
Washington, it was a meeting place for Colonial leaders 
attending the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Scene 
of the Peace Ball, celebrating the victory at Yorktown in 
1781. January 29, 1964. 

ROTUNDA, UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, University of 
Virginia campus, Charlottesville City. 1822-1826, Thomas 
Jefferson; 1898, Stanford White. 

Regarded as one of Thomas Jefferson's masterpieces, 
dominating the University he founded. Adapted from the 
Pantheon of ancient Rome, and used as the library until 
1938. December 21, 1965. 

SABINE HALL, 1.4 miles south of intersection of Routes 
624 and 360, Tappahannock vicinity. Richmond County, 
c. 1730. 

Built by Landon Carter, son of Robert "King" Carter, the 
Hall is an early Georgian brick mansion. Noted for its fully 
paneled central hall. April 15, 1970. 

ST. JOHN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, East Broad Street 
between 24th and 25th Streets, Richmond City. 1740- 
1741. 

On March 23, 1 775, Patrick Henry delivered his "Liberty or 
Death" speech here. Addressed to Virginia's General Assem- 
bly, it moved the members to put the Colony into a state 
of defense. January 20, 1961. 

ST. LUKE'S CHURCH, Benn's Church, Isle of Wight 
County. 1682. 

A 1 7th-century Virginia church, designed in the Gothic 
style of medieval English parish churches. October 9, 1960. 

SARATOGA, 0.4 mile southeast of intersection of Routes 
723 and 617, Boyce vicinity, Clarke County. Late 18th 
century. 

Georgian gray limestone house, built by Brigadier General 
Daniel Morgan, victor over the British at the battle of 
Cowpens in South Carolina in 1781. November 7, 1973. 

SCOTCHTOWN (PATRICK HENRY HOUSE), 10 miles 
northwest of Ashland on Va. 685, Hanover County. 1719, 
Charles Chiswell. 

The Revolutionary leader and fiery orator lived here from 
1771 to 1777, during the years when he made his most 
famous speeches. This V/2-story frame house contains 
double massive center chimneys. December 21, 1965. 



143 



VIRGINIA 

SEMPLE, JAMES, HOUSE, south side of Francis Street 
between Blair and Walker Streets, Williamsburg City, 
c. 1770. 

Believed to have been designed by Thomas Jefferson. An 
example of a Roman country house adapted for use as a 
frame townhouse. April 15, 1970. 

SHERWOOD FOREST (JOHN TYLER HOUSE), 4 miles 
east of Charles City Court House on Va. 5, Charles City 
County. 1842-1862. 

Tyler, who became President upon the death of William 
Henry Harrison, lived here for the last 20 years of his life. 
July 4, 1961. 

SHIRLEY, 1.5 miles west of intersection of Routes 608 

and 5, Charles City vicinity, Charles City County. 18th 

century. 

Anne Hill Carter, mother of Robert E. Lee, was born here 

in 1773. The house is a large, 2V2-story brick building with a 

mansard roof. April 15, 1970. 

SPENCE'S POINT (JOHN R. DOS PASSOS FARM), on 
Sandy Point Neck, 0.3 mile northeast of Va. 610 on Va. 
749, Westmoreland, Westmoreland County. 20th century. 
Simple, Federal-style, 2 l /2-story brick structure. Author Dos 
Passos, who was actively involved with radical causes in the 
1920's and 1930's, wrote his last books here. November 11, 
1971. 

STRATFORD HALL, 3 miles north of Lerty on Va. 214, 
Westmoreland County. 1725-1730. 

Notable example of early Georgian architecture and the 
birthplace of Robert E. Lee. Two signers of the Declaration 
of Independence and several Members of the Continental 
Congress also occupied this house. June 30, 1961. 

THOROUGHGOOD, ADAM, HOUSE, 4 miles east of 
Norfolk on Lynnhaven River, Virginia Beach City. c. 
1636-1640. 

One of the oldest houses in the Colonies, built by a member 
of the Virginia House of Burgesses who arrived in the 
Colony as an indentured servant. An example of Virginia 
domestic architecture. October 9, 1960. 

TUCKAHOE, on the James River southeast of Manakin via 
secondary roads, Goochland County. Early 18th century. 

Georgian, two-story framehouse with a nearby complex of 
eight outbuildings. Much of the exterior and interior detail 
is original. August 11, 1969. 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA HISTORIC DISTRICT, 

bounded by University and Jefferson Park Avenues and 
Hospital and McCormick Roads, Charlottesville City. 19th 
and 20th centuries, Thomas Jefferson and Stanford White. 
District includes original classrooms and professors' quar- 
ters as well as the reconstructed Rotunda (focal point of 



144 



VIRGINIA 



Jefferson's design) and a museum and chapel later added by 
White. November 11, 1971. 

VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE, HISTORIC DIS- 
TRICT, Lexington City. 1839. 

First State-supported military college, known as the "West 
Point of the South." Provided leaders for the Confederate 
Army, including "Stonewall" Jackson, and for the two 
World Wars. May 30, 1974. 

WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY HISTORIC DIS- 
TRICT, Lexington City. 19th century. 

The District is composed of architecturally harmonious and 
spatially related Neo-Classical buildings that together form 
one of the most dignified and beautiful college campuses in 
the Nation. November 11, 1971. 

WATERFORD HISTORIC DISTRICT, near the intersec- 
tion of Main and Second Streets, Waterford, Loudoun 
County. 18th and 19th centuries. 

Oldest settlement in Loudoun County, established by 
Pennsylvania Quakers about 1730. Contained about 300 
settlers by 1840, housed in Georgian brick-and- frame row 
houses. Rare example of a little-altered early American 
village. April 15, 1970. 

WESTOVER, 7 miles west of Charles City on Va. 5, Charles 
City County. 1730-1734. 

Built by William Byrd II, tobacco planter and founder of 
Richmond. A noted example of early Georgian domestic 
architecture. October 9, 1960. 

WHITE HOUSE OF THE CONFEDERACY, Clay and 12th 
Streets, Richmond City. 1818. 

Served as the South's Executive Mansion during the 
four-year period of Confederate President Jefferson Davis' 
residence in the Confederate capital. December 19, 1960. 

WICKHAM-VALENTINE HOUSE, 1005 East Clay Street 
between 10th and 11th Streets, Richmond City. 1812. 
Built by lawyer John Wickham in the 19th century, and 
used in the 20th century by sculptor E.V. Valentine. One 
of the city's finest Federal residences, with a free-form 
spiral staircase in the hall. November 11, 1971. 



WILLIAMSBURG HISTORIC DISTRICT, bounded by 
Francis, Waller, Nicholson, New England, Lafayette, and 
Nassau Streets, Williamsburg City. 1633. 
Capital of Virginia from 1699 to 1 779 and the home of the 
College of William and Mary, founded in 1693 and one of 
the oldest schools in the United States. Restoration of the 
district, begun in 1927, recreated the environment of 18th- 
century Williamsburg. October 9, 1960. 



145 



VIRGINIA / VIRGIN ISLANDS / WASHINGTON 

WILSON, WOODROW, BIRTHPLACE, North Coalter 
Street, between Beverly and Frederick Streets, Staunton 
City. 1846. 

Wilson, twenty-eighth President, was born in this Greek 
Revival house in 1856. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 
1919 for his work in establishing the League of Nations. 
July 19, 1964. 

WREN BUILDING, College of William and Mary campus, 
Williamsburg City. 1702. 

Cornerstone for the Wren Building was laid in 1695, two 
years after the college was chartered. Four stories in height, 
it was one of the largest buildings erected in the Colonies 
up to that time. October 9, 1960. 

WYTHE HOUSE, west side of the Palace Green, Williams- 
burg City. c. 1755, Richard Taliaferro. 

One of Virginia's finest Georgian brick townhouses, with 
simple lines and fine brickwork. Home of George Wythe, 
signer of the Declaration of Independence and mayor of 
Williamsburg. April 15, 1970. 

YEOCOMICO CHURCH, 0.5 mile southwest of Tucker Hill 
on Route 606, Westmoreland County. 18th century. 

Laid out in an irregular T-shape, the church's blend of 
medieval and classical features makes it a significant 
example of transitional Colonial architecture. April 15, 
1970. 



Virgin Islands 



COLUMBUS LANDING SITE, Salt River Bay, St. Croix 
Island. 1493. 

Earliest site now under the United States flag which is 
associated with Christopher Columbus. Skirmish here with 
Carib Indians was the first recorded conflict between 
European explorers and American aborigines. October 9, 
1960. 



Washington 



CHINOOK POINT, 5 miles southeast of Fort Columbia 
Historical State Park on U.S. 101, Chinook vicinity, Pacific 
County. 1792. 

Discovery of the Columbia River at Chinook Point gave the 
United States a legitimate claim to the Northwest, long 
disputed with Great Britain. July 4, 1961. 

FORT NISQUALLY GRANARY, Point Defiance Park, 
Tacoma, Pierce County. 1843. 

The Fort was the first permanent white settlement on Puget 
Sound, serving as a communication and supply center for 



146 



WASHINGTON / WEST VIRGINIA / WISCONSIN 

trading posts. One-story granary, 20 by 31 feet, of log 
construction, is the oldest frame structure in the State. 
April 15, 1970. 

MARMES ROCKSHELTER, 1 mile north of Lyons Ferry 
on west side of Palouse River, Franklin County, c. 5600 
B.C. 

Most outstanding archeological site yet discovered in the 
Northwest. Excavations revealed the earliest burials in the 
area and eight geological strata, all containing cultural 
materials. July 19, 1964. 

PORT GAMBLE HISTORIC DISTRICT, Port Gamble, 
Kitsap County. 1853. 

One of the earliest and most important lumber-producing 
centers on the Pacific Coast. Still active, with a variety of 
architectural styles, Port Gamble exemplifies the mid-1 9th 
century company-owned town. November 13, 1966. 



West Virginia 



GRAVE CREEK MOUND, Tomlinson and 9th Streets, 
Moundsville, Marshall County, c. 500 B.C. 

One of the largest and oldest mounds in the United States, 
representative of the burial mound tradition of the Adena 
culture, which preceded the Hopewell culture. July 19, 
1964. 

TRAVELLER'S REST, 3.3 miles northeast of Leetown on 
W. Va. 48, Kearneysville, Jefferson County. 18th century. 
Limestone house built by Continental Army General 
Horatio Gates, who lived here from 1773 to 1790. 
American troops under Gates were defeated at the battle of 
Camden, in South Carolina. November 28, 1972. 

WADE, ALEXANDER, HOUSE, 256 Prairie Street, Mor- 
gantown, Monongalia County. 1872-1904. 

Wade, a teacher and superintendent in the West Virginia 
school system, lived here from 1872 to 1904. Devised 
important innovations in the grading, promotion, and 
graduation procedures. December 21, 1965. 

Wisconsin 



ASTOR FUR WAREHOUSE, Water Street, St. Feriole 
Island, Prairie du Chien, Crawford County, c. 1835. 
One of the American Fur Company's principal establish- 
ments, this stone building recalls the Astor empire and 
Prairie du Chien 's prominence as a fur trading center. 
October 9, 1960. 

AZTALAN, near Lake Mills on Wis. 89, Aztalan State Park, 



147 



WISCONSIN 

Jefferson County, c. 1200-1300. 

Large stockaded temple mound site, the northernmost of 
the large Mississippian culture archeological sites. July 19, 
1964. 

BRISBOIS, HOUSE, Water Street, St. Feriole Island, Prairie 
du Chien, Crawford County. 1808. 

Built by a French Canadian, one of the town's first 
permanent settlers in 1781. This 2V2-story house illustrates 
the prosperity brought by the furtrading industry. October 
9, 1960. 

DOUSMAN HOTEL, Water Street, St. Feriole Island, 
Prairie du Chien, Crawford County. 1864. 

Served travelers when Prairie du Chien was a railroad 
center. Used as a stopping point by thousands of emigrants 
to the West after the Civil War. October 9, 1960. 

GARLAND, HAMLIN, HOUSE, 357 West Garland Street, 
West Salem, La Crosse County. 1859-1860. 

Pulitzer Prize-winning author Garland bought this house for 
his parents in 1893. Visited here regularly, doing much of 
his writing during his lengthy stays. November 11, 1971. 

LA FOLLETTE, ROBERT M., HOME, 733 Lakewood 
Boulevard, Maple Bluff, Dane County, c. 1860. 

As Wisconsin's Governor and Senator, and as the Progres- 
sive Party candidate for the Presidency in 1924, La Follette 
was active in government reform movements. January 29, 
1964. 

LITTLE WHITE SCHOOLHOUSE, southeast corner of 
Blackburn and Blossom Streets, Ripon, Fond du Lac 
County. 19th century. 

A meeting here in 1854 to protest the extension of slavery 
drew dissatisfied Whigs, Free Soilers, and Democrats. Out 
of such meetings grew a new political movement which 
ultimately resulted in formation of the Republican Party. 
May 30, 1974. 

NORTH HALL, University of Wisconsin campus, Madison, 
Dane County. 1851. 

A four-story sandstone structure, the University's first 
building. The college pioneered in extension work, particu- 
larly in agricultural programs. December 21, 1965. 

OCONTO SITE, Copper Culture State Park, Oconto, 
Oconto County, c. 5000-4000 B.C. 

Prehistoric burial ground where implements of the Old 
Copper culture have been found in association with human 
burials. January 20, 1961. 

RINGLINGVILLE, bounded by Water, Brian, Lynn, and 
East Streets, Baraboo, Sauk County. 1884-1918. 

Served as winter headquarters for both the Ringling 
Brothers Circus and the Barnum and Bailey Circus until 



148 



WISCONSIN / WYOMING 

1919. Circus structures are now part of a museum complex. 
August 4, 1 969. 

SECOND FORT CRAWFORD, bank of the Mississippi 
River, Prairie du Chien, Crawford County. 1829. 
Originally located on St. Feriole Island and moved to 
present site in 1829. Post hospital, the only remaining 
building, was the scene of important medical experiments 
from 1829 to 1833. October 9, 1960. 

VILLA LOUIS, St. Feriole Island, Prairie du Chien, 
Crawford County. 1843. 

Owner Hercules Louis Dousman was active in fur trade and 
transportation enterprises. Villa complex includes Victo- 
rian-style house, office, coachhouse, and icehouse. October 
9,1960. 



Wyoming 



EXPEDITION ISLAND, Green River, Sweetwater County. 
1869, 1871. 

Embarkation point for Major John Wesley Powell's 1871 
expedition down the Green and Colorado Rivers, and 
possibly for the 1869 trip also. Powell explored the last, 
large, unknown land area in the United States on these 
trips. November 24, 1968. 

FORT PHIL KEARNY AND ASSOCIATED SITES, on 

secondary road west of U.S. 87, Story vicinity, Johnson 

County. 1866. 

From 1866 to 1868 the Fort was under virtual siege, in the 

Red Cloud War, as Sioux Indians fought successfully to 

prevent white invasion of hunting grounds. December 19, 

1960. 

HORNER SITE, 4 miles northeast of Cody on U.S. 20, 
Park County, c. 5000 B.C. 

Yielded evidence that several distinctive weapons and tools 
found in the Plains region were all part of a single 
prehistoric flint tool industry of early hunter origin. 
January 20, 1961. 

INDEPENDENCE ROCK, 60 miles southwest of Casper on 
Wyo. 220, Natrona County. 

Well-known natural landmark on the Oregon Trail, 1900 
feet long and 850 feet wide. Numerous travelers painted, 
carved, or wrote their names on its surface. January 20, 
1961. 

MEDICINE WHEEL, north of U.S. 14A, 15 miles north of 
Kane, Big Horn County. 17th to 19th centuries. 

Made of loose, irregularly-shaped, whitish, flat stones 



149 



WYOMING 

placed in a circle. Twenty-eight linear spokes, 70-75 feet in 
length, radiate from the hub. Original purpose is not 
known. August 29, 1970. 

OREGON TRAIL RUTS, south side of North Platte River, 
0.5 mile south of Guernsey, Platte County. 1841-1869. 

Worn from two to six feet into an eroded sandstone ridge, 
the Ruts provide clear physical evidence of the route 
followed by those migrating westward across the Plains. 
May 23, 1966. 

SHERIDAN INN, Broadway and 5th Street, Sheridan, 
Sheridan County. 1893, Thomas R. Kimball. 
William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody operated the hotel from 
1894 to 1896, catering principally to sportsmen. Frame 
building has a piazza on two sides. January 29, 1964. 

SOUTH PASS, 10 miles southwest of South Pass City on 
Wyo. 28, Fremont County. 1824. 

Easiest passage through the Rocky Mountains, heavily used 
by westbound settlers, fur traders, and miners. The Pass 
helped establish effective claims to the Pacific Northwest. 
January 20, 1961. 

SUN, TOM, RANCH, 6 miles west of Independence Rock 
on Wyo. 220, Carbon and Natrona Counties. 1872. 
Typifies the medium-sized ranching operations of the open 
range period. Sun was a French Canadian frontiersman who 
became a pioneer cattleman. December 19, 1960. 

SWAN LAND AND CATTLE COMPANY HEAD- 
QUARTERS, east side of Chugwater, Platte County. 1883. 
Organized in Scotland, the Company was one of the foreign 
concerns that flourished in the West when the range cattle 
industry was profitable. Surviving buildings include the 
ranchhouse, barn, and commissary . July 19, 1964. 

UPPER GREEN RIVER RENDEZVOUS SITE, on Green 
River above and below Daniel, Sublette County. 1824- 
1840. 

Most popular rendezvous site connected with the Rocky 
Mountain fur trade. Annual spring trading fair held here 
attracted traders, Indians, and trappers, including Kit 
Carson. November 5, 1961. 

WAPITI RANGER STATION, Shoshone National Forest, 
Wapiti vicinity, Park County. 1903. 

First station erected at Federal expense. Located within the 
first national forest reserve, established by President Benja- 
min Harrison in 1891. May 23, 1963. 



NPS 169 



150 



As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of 
the Interior has responsibility for most of our nationally owned 
public lands and natural resources. This includes fostering the wisest 
use of our land and water resources, protecting our fish and wildlife, 
preserving the environmental and cultural values of our national parks 
and historical places, and providing for the enjoyment of life through 
outdoor recreation. The Department assesses our energy and min- 
eral resources and works to assure that their development is in the 
best interests of all our people. The Department also has a major 
responsibility for American Indian reservation communities and for 
people who live in Island Territories under U.S. administration. 




DATE DUE 






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UNIUERSITY OF GEORGIA LIBRARIES 

National historic landmarks : 
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